An Unequal Spatial Distribution Of Income Sources Between Rural And Urban Areas

1882 Words Sep 15th, 2016 8 Pages
There is an unequal spatial distribution of income sources between rural and urban areas in developing countries (Satterthwaite and Tacoli 2002). Infrastructure and services tend to be concentrated in urban areas, but housing is easier to access in rural zones. While rural livelihoods still depend on natural capital, urban areas provide more labor market options (Tacoli 1998, 2006). Urban-rural linkages are therefore becoming important since rural households are relying more on urban incomes, but many poor urban households also depend on natural resources and rural reciprocity networks (Satterthwaite and Owen 2006; Greiner 2011).
The increase in rural-urban linkages may be attributed to a worldwide tendency toward livelihood diversification and “deagrarianization”, which includes the rising importance of non-farm activities for rural households. “Urban–rural multi-sitedness is both a product and a cause of the decline in importance of agricultural production especially for the market, and its replacement by myriad income sources (…)” (Pinedo Vazquez and Padoch 2009, 92). This phenomenon is not new (Nugent 1993), but there is increasing evidence that it is becoming more widespread worldwide (Winklerprins 2002a, 2002b; Moreira 2003; Padoch et al. 2008; Newing 2009; Alexiades 2009, Eloy and Lasmar 2012; Peluso and Alexiades 2005; McSweeney and Jokisch 2007).
Livelihood studies have discussed the extensive spatial diversification of livelihood strategies (Trager 2005; Koenig…

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