Gray Pine Research Paper

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Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) tolerates well both hot and colder temperatures, also drought. This is due to the dense horizontal root system that goes deeper than most Pinus species'. (Magyar 1960) As a tree that feels itself home mostly in continental mountain ranges and the Mediterranean climate, its home range stretches from Iberia through the Alps to the Taurus mountains in Asia Minor. It is medium to fast growing with a pyramidal crown. It is mostly resistant to breakage. (Gilman-Watson, 1994) Despite the contradictory opinions about the species (foresters emphasise on how it prevents soil erosion and the soil shading ability, while ecologists how it suppresses the local flora, invasion capabilities and fire hazards), it's often used for land reclamation, as it has a wide tolerance range in temperature and soil quality as well.
White pine (Pinus strobus) has an intermediate shade tolerance and can live well for many years under the canopy in partial sunlight. The young trees will respond quickly and positively when the suppressive layer is removed. It tolerates many kinds of soils, however it does best on sandy types. (Martin-Lorimer, 1997) It is widely grown
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It can reach about twenty meters in height if the conditions are suitable, but might remain shrub sized if they are poor. It likes dry, sandy sites and is highly intolerant of shade, therefore the seeds and the seedlings need full sunlight without any kind of coverage, hence selection cutting and uneven-aged forest management is not feasible. It grows best on fertile loamy sands. If this need of sunlight of theirs is not fulfilled, they might not develop properly, or quite probably no maturation will happen at all. The shape is rarely regular. It can often be found in association with other pines, like the red and white pine, though they should not be mixed. (Martin-Lorimer,

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