Fire safety is a vital part of the modern technological society and as responsible citizens it is important to recognise that, with the aid of fire retardants, there is a prolong time frame of escaping from fires. This widely used carcinogenic product is composed of certain chemical elements within numerous everyday products (either inside the polymeric material or as an external layer) that help combat the ignition through chemical reactions at particular phases in the combustion cycle. Fire retardants are classified as reactive (which is combined into polymers through chemical reactions) or additive (combined into the compounds through physical mixing). Fire retardants composite of the following …show more content…
Individual element antimony is inactive by itself but its usefulness is boosted by halogenated fire retardants as it discharges the radical inceptor HX, thus during the gas phase it prevents flame spread.
The phosphorus fire retardant occurs in the condensed phase whereby is changed by thermal decomposition to phosphoric acid which separates water (H2O) from the pyrolysing substrate, making it burn. The inorganic red phosphorus decompose in endothermic reactions releasing non-flammable gases such as water carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, protecting the polymer.
Boron reacts in both the condensed phase and gas phase. Boron comprising compounds act via endothermic as it discharges water and creates a glassy coating guarding the substrate.
Aluminum hydroxide is most commonly utilized fire retardant as it is cheap and effortless to combine in plastics. Aluminum decomposes in an endothermic reaction from a temperature of 180 degrees to 200 degrees, as it discharges water vapor (chemical formulae shown in Figure 1.3). The water vapor detachment has a diluting consequence in the gas phase and forms oxygen restoring protective layer above the condensed phase. Aluminum along with other burning products acts as a shielding …show more content…
Individuals spending prolong time or contained in these places may suffer long term side effects such as hormone disruption, reproductive harmfulness, cancer, intrusion of developing fetus, immune system function and impaired nervous system. Several studies support that fire retardants containing poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have caused thyroid poison in the human body. PBDE also affects the pregnant women who breath in the dust particles containing harmful elements which are transferred into the mother’s amniotic fluids contaminating the breast milk, when consumed by the infants it affect mental development, intelligent motor coordination and IQ comprehension. In 2008 samples of meats were collected in a survey on PBDE, the results showed that the highest concentration was found in turkey, followed by fish (salmon), chicken, pork and beef. In comparison to vegetarian, those consuming these meats are at the worst disadvantage with developing health issues. With today’s generation people are moving towards consciously moving away from chemicals found in food, hence consuming lesser of such products, hence affecting the manufacturer production