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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three pulmonary systems
Air conduction; passage of inhaled/exhaled air

Respiratory; gas exchange between air and blood
Mechanical ventilation; rib cage/muscles, diaphragm, elastic connective tissue within lung parenchyma
Conducting airways and alveolar units
Conducting airways and alveolar units
Nasal Concha; extensive vascular network: venous sinuses,
atriovenous anastomoses & capillaries
respiraotry mucosa lining the nasal cavity; respiratory epithelium conains pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with high density of goblet cells. Basal cells represent a stem cell compartment
Epiglottis; Epiglottis is unpaired ‘leaf-like’ structure below root of tongue that covers entrance to larynx.
Core of elastic cartilage that attaches to hyoid bone.
Lingual surface covered with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is continuous
with dorsal surface of tongue.
Vocal cords; two sets of paired folds, false and true
Arrangement of the epiglottis, false and true vocal cords
Trachea; fibrolastic cartilage and hyaline cartilage;
Trachea Epithelium
Primary Bronchus; similar to trachea but with shorter epithelium, fewer goblet cells, cartilage like flattened plates instead of rings
Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue

Trachea w/ cartilage rings
Bronchus w cartilage plates
Brnchiole complete rings of smooth muscle
Tertiary bronchus; respiratory epithelium is columnar
Cystic Fibrosis
Retention of Cl, pulls Na and thus water out of mucus making it thick
Respiratory lobule and respiratory acinus
The pulmonary lobule consists of a terminal
bronchiole & associated respiratory bronchioles,
alveolar ducts, alveoli sacs and alveoli.

Physiologists refer to a pulmonary ‘acinus’
consisting of all respiratory parenchyma
served by a respiratory bronchiole branched
from the terminal bronchiole; thus an ‘acinus’
is a subcomponent of a ‘lobule’.
Terminal bronchioles; lined by simple columnar/cuboidal epithelium

secretory Clara cells replace goblet cells
Emphysema
Results from destructoin of respiratory parenchyma epithelia
What are clara cells unique to?
Bronchioles; extensive SER for detoxification

Clara cells secrete surfactant proteins, proteolytic enzymes and lysozyme; can differentiate into ciliated and nonciliated bronchial epithelial cells
Alveoli; terminal portion of respiratory tree
Pulmonary arteries/branches distribute segmentally with bronchi
Pulmonary veins and their tributaries drain intersegmentally

Capillaries branch to form basket like arrangement around alveolus
Pneumocyte Type II; surfactant cell
Alveolar macrophage (dust cell); ingests dust/foreign particles taht enter alveolar space; high phagocytic activity; ciliate mediate movement up bronchial tree
Function of surfactant?
Lower the surface tension at the alveolar surface so they can expand; synthesized by type II pneumocytes
Surfactant Deficiency
Can result in collapse of lung due to large surface tension; resulting lack of 02 further impairs surfactant synthesis
Nasal Vestibule
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium; hyaline cartilage rings
Epiglottis; stratified squamous nonkeritanized epithelium; central core of elastic cartilage;
Lung; carbon filled alveolar macrophages (smokers lung)