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52 Cards in this Set

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Define Personality
Dynamic Organization, inside the person, of psychological systems that create the person's characteristics patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
Qualities of Personality
1. Has organization
2. has process, dynamic, not dormant
3. Tied to a physical body, but is psychological concept
4. Is a causal force - helps define how one relates to the field - bias filter
5. Personality shows up in patterns
6. Displayed in many ways - behaviors, thoughts, feelings
Assumptions of Personality
1. Continuous over time
2. Person is origin of behavior
3. You can be captured by a few salient qualities
Levels of Personality
1. Temperments and Traits
2. Attitudes and Attachments
3. Personal Narrative
2 key issues in field of personality
1. Individual differences - difference in personality between people
2. Intrapersonal functioning - psychological process that takes place within the person
Theory
summary statement of principles that pertain to certain class of events
Purpose of Theory
Explain things that are known and predict possibilities that have yet to be examined
A good theory...
Based on breadth of information, not based on single kind of information, parsimonious, "feels good" and fits well with intuition, stimulates interest
Dispositional Perspective
trait, fairly stable qualitis across settings
Biological perspective
humans are biological creatures with shared genetic dispositions
Psychoanalytic perspective
internal forces compete and conflict with each other, Freud
Neoanalytic perspective
ego and development, early experiences and relationships key
Learning perspective
change constant because of experience, you change environment --> change you
Phenomenological perspective
humanistic, free will to choose experiences
1. internal subjective experience unique/valuable/meaningful/important
2. people tend toward self perfection and use free will
Cognitive self-regulation
thinking structure/how you think (rules, patterns) is key
Central Limits Theorem
can generalize random sample to population if random and representative of population
Variable
anything that changes, dimension along which variations exist, link in systematic way
Independent variable
predictor, manipulated by researcher, cause
Dependent variable
link with level of independent, outcome, observed and measured
control variable
help constant so doesn't correlate
Extraneous variables
variable with unwanted effect, trying to control them
Quasi-Experimental research
correlational with indpendent variable naturally occuring, can't rule out 3rd variable
Main effect
one independent of another, result is 2 parallel lines with no interaction
Strong situation
personality washed out, socialization strong
Weak situation
personality and character comes out, social norms decreased
Sources of Information in personality assessment
Observer ratings or self-report
Reliability
how reproducable, consistency across measures
Validity
measure what you intend to measure
Internal consistency
consistent items with, average correlation between each pair in set
Chrom-Box Alpha meaures internal consistency (higher to one = more reliable)
Inter-rater reliability
extent to which judges see the same with with same event, agreement between raters, decrease personal bias
Test-retest reliability
reproducibility over time
Construct validity
operational definitions matches concept you set out to measure, define construct in way that is measurable
Criterion validity
predictibility, external criterion of link conpcet with assessment, how well predicts what supposed to
Convergent validity
fingings link together con construct, relates to similar characteristics not measure
Discriminant validty
not measuring things don't intend to measure
Face validity
Obvious, seems to measure what want to measure
Cultural issues
1. meaning universal
2. interpetation the same as you meant it to be
Response sets
Bias, acquiesence, social desirability/social norms influence response
metatheories
set of orienting assumptions about reality, provide guidelines for what kinds of ideas to use to create theories
case-study
in depth study of one individual
causality
relationship such that variation in one direction produces variation in another
clinically significant
association large enough to have practical importance
correlation
relationship in whcih 2 varibales covary when measured repeatedly
inferential statistics
stats used to judge the liklihood that a relationshop exists between variables
personology
study of the whole person, not just one aspect
statistical significance
an effect unlikely to have occured by chance
acquiescence
response set of tending to agree, say 'yes'
criterion keying
developing of a test by seeing what items distinguish between groups
error
random influences incorporated in measurements
inventory
personaluty test measureing several aspects of personality on distinct scales
rational approach (to scale development)
use of theory ot decide what you want to measure, then deciding how to measure it
split-half reliability
one way of assessing internal consistency among responses to items of a measure