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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
belief that all behavior is caused and is therefore not free
contention that an attribute is determined by experience rather than by genetics. Within epistemology, it is the belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience.
contention that mental events are the by products of bodily events. Bodily events cause mental events but mental events cannot cause bodily events. Mental events, therefore, can be ignored in the analysis of human behavior
study of the nature of human knowledge
contention that the major motive in life is to seek pleasure and to avoid pain
heurisitic function of a theory
theory's ability to generate new information
human nature
those qualities that characterize all humans.
idiographic research
intense study of a single personq
individual differences
important ways in which humans differ from one another. one of the tasks of the personlality theorist is to describe and explain this
contention that the mind influences the body and the body influences the mind. That is, the mind and the body are causually related.
self examination. directing one's thoughs inward to discover the truth about oneself
mind-body problem
problem of spcifiying how something mental can influence something physical, such as the body and vice-versa
contention that an attribute is determined by genetics rather than by experience
nativism-empiricism controversy
argument concernting the extnet to which an attribute, such as intelligence, is influenced by inheritance as opposed to experience.
Nomothetic research.
Study of group of individuals
term used by Kuhn to describe a theorietical viewpoint shared by many researchers
contention that an evironmental event causees both mental and bodily reactions at the same time. According to this proposed anser to the mind-body question, bodily and mental phenomena run parallel to each other and are therefore not causually related
person variables
variables contained within persons thought to be responsible for their behavior. Traits, habits, memories, information-processing mechanisms, and repressed early experiences exemplify person variables
latin word meaning mask
physical monism
aka materialism: contention that no mind-body problem exists b/c no mind exists. No mental events occur, only physial events
principle of falsifiablity/principle of refutability
popper's contention that the scientific theory must make risky predictions; that is, it must make preictions that could conceivably be false and, if so, would refute the theory
principle of verification
the stipulation that scientific propositions must be capable of objective, empirical testing that is abialable to any intersted person
belief that knowledge can be gained only by exercising the mind, for example by thinking, deducing, and referring
risky predictions
predicitons that run the risk of being incorrect. Accordin got popper for a theory to be considered scientific it must make risky predictions
epistemological pursuit that combines the philosophical scholls of empiricism and rationalism
scientific theory
comibination of the philosphical schools of rationalism and empiricism with 2 major functions: to synthesize many observations and to generate new information
concept employed by several personality theorists to account for the facts that human behavior is smooth running, consistent, and well organized. This concept has been used to explain why we are aware of ourselves as individuals
situation that exists when a person is acting in accordance with his or her potential
synthesizing fxn of a thoery
a theory ability to organize and explain several otherwise disjointed observations
teleological behavior
purposive behavior
private definition of personality
stresses private, central, inner core: examples) motives, fantasies, attitudes
social definiton of personality
public, social stimulus or organized behavioral characteristics that are visible
global definition of personality
composite of qualities or characterisitics: sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, social qualities
pleasure principle
the id
reservoir of psychic energy: Freud
the id
primary process of the mind:Freud
satisfy through wish fullfillment
oldest most basic part of the personality
seek pleasure in all costs
immediate gratification
satisfies impulses in the real world
reality principle and delayed gratification
secondary process- actually satisfies needs in real world
executive of personality
morality of personality
conscience- punished behavior
ego-idea: everything rewarded for
dynamics of personality
1. instincts as psychic energy
2. psychological and psychic energy can be transformed into the other
3. anxiety
psychological and psychic energy can be transformed into the other by:
sexual instinct- life instinct
destructive instinct- death instinct
signal to the ego of danger which requires response
comes from internal conflict that exists b/c ego is threatened and could be overpowered/that's who deals with it by using restraining forces to keep things under control
3 forms of anxiety
in the real world, things that could really cause you anxiety
imaginary fear of punishment from someone else
fear of being punished by yourself
tension reducers that fxn on an unconscious level and distory reality
defense mechanisms
ego used restraining force to effect_____: the form of this which is conscious is:
repression : suppression
ego blocking wish or desire from being consciously entertained
attributing an unconscious impule, attitude or behavior to someone else
expressing an impulse by its opposite
reaction formation
returning to an earlier form of expressing an impulse ex:
alcohol/oral fixation
dealing with an emotion intellectually to avoid emotional involvement
modeling behavior after someone else REAlly
satisfying an impulse with a substitute object
rechannelingrechanneling an impulse into a more socially desireable outlet
6 research methods/applications
1. free association
2. transference
3. dream analysis
4. parapraxes/Freudian slips
5. resistanc
6. case studies
Critique of Theory
1. high on generating research
2. moderate on organizing knwon data, guiding action, and parsimony
3. low on internal consistency
4. very low on falsifiablity
Freud's concept of humanity
1. deterministic and pessimistic
2. causality over teleology
3. unconscious
4. biology
5. equal emphasis on uniqueness and similarity
areas of pleasure are the mouth, lips, tongue,
oral stage (0-8months)
reduces tensions/achieves pleasure by sucking and swallowing,
oral stage (0-8)
areas of pleausre are the teeth, gums, and jaw
oral stage (8-1yr)
reduces tensions/achieves pleasure by biting and devouring
overt activities are eating, smoking, kissing
oral stage (0-8)
overt activities are fingernail biting and eating
oral (8-1)
symbolic activities are good listeners and gullible
oral stage (0-8)
symbolic activities are sarcasm and ridicule
oral stage (8-1)
personality type is oral incorporative
oral (0-8)
personality type is oral-sadistic
areas of pleasure are the anus and buttocks
anal (1-2)
reduces tension- feces expulsion
1st half of anal stage
reduces tension- feces possession
last half of anal stage
overt activities enuresis
1st half of anal stage
overt activities constipation
2nd half of anal stage
symbolic activities are overly generous, messy
symbolic activity is perfectionism
personality type is anal-expulsive
anal 1st
personality type is anal retentive
anal 2nd
area of pleasure is the genitals
phallic stage (3-5 yrs)
reduces tension and achieves pleasure by repressing sexual feelings
latency stage (6-12)
seeks heterosexual relationships if fixated here
genital stage (12+ yrs)
birth to adolescence
the childhood
focusing on psychic energy, eating, sleeping, learning to walk/talk
forming more stable relationship
focus psychic energy-forming more stable relationships: marrying/kids
period from puberty until middle life
begins at approx 35-40: when trying to figure out why you're here, find meaning of life, spiritual
middle life
diminution of sonsciousness: death is the goal of life-accepting
old age
individuation or full expression of everything you are: constantly happening
self realization
harmounious blending of psyche components and the process of becoming an individual or whole person
self realization
jungs concept of humanity
1. biology over nature
2. unconscious over conscious
3. similarity over uniquenss
3. equal emphasis on free will/determinism, causality/teleology, and optimism/pessimism
critiques of jung
1. moderate on organizing research, and organizing known data: low on guding action, internal consistency and parsimony: very low on falsifiablity
critiques of frued
high on generating research
moderate on organizing known data, guiding action, and parsimony
low on internal consistency
very low on falsifiablity
concept of humanity
1. determinism and pessimism
2. causality
3. unconscious
4. biology
equal emphasis on uniqueness and similarity