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48 Cards in this Set

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An area of philosophy concerned with the meaning of human existence

Subjects realities are really important
Emphasis on individual’s personal experience in life with a focus on the existential dilemma (an inevitable death)
Existential psychology
An area of philosophy that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the importance of human values
Fromme's theory of love was that it allowed humans to
overcome our isolation while mantaining our individual integrity.

He believed love was an art.

Modern society encourages existential alienation
What is Fromm's theory of "Escapes from freedom"
We fear having freedom so we tend to try and flee from it in one of three ways:

1. Authoritarianism
2. Destructiveness
3. Automaton authority
What is authoritarianism?
The fusing of ourselves with others. One can become an authoritarian or submissive to authoritarians.

Fromm believed the extremes of authoritarianists were masochists and sadists.
What is destructiveness?
A result of our painful experience. There are two results:

1. Self-elimination
-if there is no me, no pain
2. Striking out against the world
- if i destroy the world, how can it hurt me?
What is Automaton Conformity?
The idea that we can escape in society by "fitting in". If we act, talk, think, like everyone else in society we will fit in and not need to acknowlege our freedom.
What is "the social unconscious"?
the tendency to think that our way of doing things is the only way. We think we are free to do it our way but in reality we are conforming to societies norms.
How did Fromm propose we could best see our social unconscious?
by examining our economic systems.
How did Carl Rogers "see" people? mental illness?
He saw people as basically good and healthy. He thought mental illness was a normal progression in life.
the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible 
Carl Rogers' Actualizing tendency
How important to Roger's was the self-actualizing tendency?
Very strong. All biological drives are subsumed underneath the actualizing tendency.
Method of evaluation of one’s experiences
All experiences can be evaluated by using the actualizing tendency as a frame of reference
Experiences in accordance with the actualizing tendency are satisfying and therefore approached and maintained
Experiences that are contrary to the actualizing tendency are unsatisfying and therefore avoided or terminated
Organismic valuing process
The idea that All people live in a subjective world which can be known only to themselves
Phenomenological Field
Receiving love, warmth, sympathy, care, respect, and acceptance from those who are important to us
Need for positive regard
How universal did Rogers think the need for positive regard actually is?
he believed it was universal just not innate in some cases.
What is the need for SELF-regard? where does it stem from?
The need to view the self as positive.

It stems from our need for positive regard.
What are conditions of worth?
Specifies the circumstances under which children will receive positive regard from parent’s
Children internalize these and use them to guide behavior
What is the result of conditions of worth?
the only way a child can have self regard is by acting in accordance with another person's expectations.
Allowing the child to experience positive regard no matter what they do
-This allows one to also develop unconditional self-regard
Unconditional positive regard.
An individual who no longer uses their organismic valuing process to determine if their experiences are in accordance with their actualizing tendency
Incongruent person
What did Rogers believe is caused by being an incongruent person?
How did Rogers develop his skill as a therapist?
he allowed the client to run the session and learned how to best run a session.

Did what was best for the client (mmm huh, ok)
Rogers psychotherapy was both INDIRECTIVE and CLIENT-CENTERED... meaning...
Non-directive= emphasizes the client's ability to solve their own problems if given the right atmosphere to do so.

Client-centered= the therapist must work WITH the client to understand the patient's phenomenological field.
What is the goal in Rogers' therapy sessions?
To eliminate incongruity and to become a fully finctional person.
In client centered therapy who is responsible for improvement
the client
Unlike most therapy techniques in client-centered therapy the therapist DOES NOT
Evaluate (no judging)... comments are made to open dialogue or to change course but not in any judgemental way.
What three characteristics did Rogers believe were "NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT" to be effective in therapy?
Congruence- genuineness and honesty

Empathy- ability to feel what the client feels.

Respect- acceptance and unconditional positive regard for the client.
According to Rollo May, NORMAL ANXIETY is a result of
challenging one's structure of meaning.
Rollo may believed anxiety was both
necessary for growth and inescapable.

In fact he recommends we try not to remove it from our lives as it is normal and healthy.
What according to Rollo may is NEUROTIC ANXIETY?
A result of attempting to escape anxiety.

as a result some give up their personal freedom, conform to others and lose thier ability to grow.
According to Rollo May, what is normal Guilt?
results from feeling like one has not lived up to potential.

May believed normal guilt can be used constructively.
What is neurotic guilt?
Attempting to escape the guilt we experience from not living up to potential.

May believed it was closely associated with Neurotic anxiety and both halted growth.
According to Rollo May, what are the four TYPES OF LOVE?

Philia- friendship

Eros- desire for union with another person

Agape- unselfish giving of oneself

Sex- biological drive
What TYPE OF LOVE should never be equated with love?
What is authentic love?
a blend of all four TYPES OF LOVE.
What is Victor Frankl's theory of logotherapy?
it is about personal choice. A person chooses to search for meaning in their lives.

Searching for meaning can cause anxiety that may be worthwhile after self-growth is achieved.
According to Maslow's heirarchy of needs...

Low-level needs are more..
while higher-level needs are more...
primitive, powerful, and demanding than higher-level needs

representative of humans.
What must be achieved to reach these higher-level needs?
Needs at lower level must be met before attending to higher-level needs
What is the lowest level of needs? They include? directly related to...?
Physiological needs

Food and water

Driven by survival instincts.
What are the 5 levels of the heirarchy?
Physiological needs, saftey needs, love and belonging, self-esteem needs, self-actualization needs.
Self actualization
being as "you" as you can be.

only level not associated with a deficit.

all individuals could expereince peak experiences which are...

(more likely for self-actualized individuals)
"the feeling of being one with the world"
Negative aspects of Self actualized individuals...
May be stern and show coldness, stubborn, ruthless.
Positive psychology explores...
the positive forces in life

-hope, creativity, spirtuality, wisdom
David meyer and the great american paradox...
As americans we show great progress in technology, wealth and freedom and still we are not necessarilly more happy.
How do existentialist and humanists view FREE WILL?
Free will is absolutely essential to "being human".