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36 Cards in this Set

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#43- Events Leading to The Scientific Revolution
This series of discoveries and quetions happened over a lond period of time.
#44- Discovery of the New World
This discovery of new plant and animal life encouraged greater interests in the natural sciences. It also made scientists wonder more about the stars and Astronomy.
#45- Invention of the Prinitng Press
This allowed Scientific knowledge to spread much more quickly. This allowed many people to know about new scientiic discoveries.
#46- Rivalry Among Nation States.
The waring states made technological advancements much more important and in places like China where there was no battles, the technological advancements slowed down.
#47- Reformation
Some believe that Protestantism helped create capitalism which helped propel the Scientific Revolution. Catholic Italy made huge steps in technology like the microscope and telescope.
#48- Renaissance Humanism
The basic familiarity with Classical Greek teachings were necessary for the scientific revolution to develop.
#49- Medieval World View Prior to the Scientific Revolution
The great worker of this time was Thomas Aquinas, who harminized the Church's teachings with those of the Aristotle. They didn't view science without a view of God also. The concept of the four elements, earth fire wind and water, gave rise to alchemy which was the perfect compound of the elements in their perfect porportions. As far as astronomy they believed the ideas of Ptolemy who said the world was the center of the universe.
#50- The Copernican Revolution
In 1543 Nicholas Copernicus wrote Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. He said that if the world were to revolve around the sun, then that would eplain some flaws in the Ptolemaic system.
#51- After Copernicus
Tycho Brahe proposed that the moon and sun revolve around earth, and the rest of the planets revolve around the sun. His student, Johannes Kepler, disagreed with his teaher and said that Copernicus's idea was right bu the planets revolved in an eliptical formation.
#52- Galileo
Galileo made a telescope that could magnifie thirty times the normal humans eye. He started to look at the planets and found flaws in most of the previous beliefs. He deduced that Earth is in Perpetual motion. The Catholic Church began to condemn Galileo. The Papal Inquisiton executed people for coming up with theories that were heresay.
#53- Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac was the greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution. Newton tried to explain why the planets orbited in the way that they did and cam eup with the idea of gravity. Newton is the father of calculus.
#54- The Impact Of The Scientific Revolution On Philosophy
Francis Bacon never conducted any experiments or made any discoveries, but he was still important to scientific discovery. he wrote three major works called the Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620), and New Atlantis (1627) in which he attacked medieval beliefs and said we need to examine evidence from nature to see what is right and what is wrong.
#55- Rene Descartes
Descartes (1596-1650) was kind of an anti-Bacon because he didn't believe in experimentation, rather using reason to go from thought to thought. He did adree with Bacon about the medieval times belief and how it was false. In his famous work, Discourse on Method, he reduced nature to two common elements: mind and matter. he said the matter was made up of an infinite number of particles and that it operated like a whirlpool that provided contact among the particles.
#56- Blaise Pascal
Pascal tried to balance his beliefs between the thinking of the Jesuits and that of the complete religious skeptics. his life's attempt to achieve this balance is found in his Pensees. he became involved with the Jansenists, a Catholic fraction that believed in predestination.
#57- Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes knew all the great minds of his time, like Galileo and Descartes. he used their experimental methods and applied them to politics. hobbes was horrified by the English Revolution and he said in hid work, the Leviathan, that life was "nasty, brutish, and short". He believed in absolutism and said that the people were obliged to obey one true king so that they wouldn't react on their instinct and just kill, kill, kill.
#58- John Locke
His Two Treatises on Government, were a defense for William and Mary and he revolution. he believed in free will, but man was bound by contract, but he never gave up his rights. if those rights are breeched, then he can rebel. In his Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke attacked the idea that Christianity could be spread by force. His Essay on Human Understanding said that children entered the world with no set ideas.
#59- The Eighteenth Century Enlightenment
When asked what the Enightenment was, Immanuel Kant said "Dare to know". This means that people needed to stop believing in things because they were tradition or because the people were just not caring, and start reforming your ideas based on your own beliefs and ideas. Some brilliant French scholars created the Republic of letters and they printed their ideas about the enlightenment. These letters went all around Europe and the American colonies. Enlightenment changed over a period of time form th scientific revolution to people like John Locke who believed in Children not knowing anything at birth and this spurred on an educational approach. John Locke was soon overshadowed by other writers such as Voltaire and David Hume who challenged religion. Also Adam Smith talked about economics. Jean-Jacques Rousseau inspired truth seeking.
#60- Voltaire
Volatire was French and he traveled to England and was inspired by the peoples freedom and honor. he was Catholic but despised his religion and any other traditions. He was very anti religion. Candide was his most famous work and it said that humans would not be happy with religion. he became a celebrity and was really fighting religious dominance.
#61- Montesquieu
His name was Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, and he wrotepossibly the most influential book of the enlightenment, called Spirit of Laws (1748). In this he wrote of the Englishes seperation of powers among various branches of government providing for the possibility of checks and balances which did not exist at the time. In a later work, Persian Letters (17210, he criticized the religious zealotry and said that there needed to be a universal justice system.
#62- Diderot and the Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia was created by Denis Diderot and executed by the Republic of Letters. the first set featured articles from the briliant minds of the edge and was arranged in a scientific pattern.It was very wide-spread but some states banned it like Italy because it spoke against Catholic teachings. France also put censors on it because it spoke against monarchy.
#63- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He believed in a democracy instead of a monarchy and that made many of the other scholars of the time hate him. His works weren't enjoyed during his time, but they inspired the French Revolution.In The Social Contradt, he said that the only way a person could be happy was if the community was happy for the community to be happy there had to be a democracy with general will. He wrote the novel Emile which helped set th stage for the romantic movement.
#64- The Spread Of Enlightenment Thought
Although originally rooted in France, over the course of the eighteenth century the enlightenment spread to other parts of the world.
#65- Germany
Immanuel Kant argued in his Critique of Pure Reason against the idea that all knowledge was empirical, since the mind shaped the world through it's unique experiences. he believed that we could find more knowledge by using more than reason.
#66- Italy
Cesare Beccaria, in his work: On Crime and Punishment, said that Italy needed a complete overhaul of their jurisprudence. He said that even if you do commit a crime then you still get certain rights.
#67- Scotland
In Scotland, David Hume argued that their was no direct evidence of miracles in his book: Inquiry Into Human Nature. Edward Gibbon reflected the interest in history in his book: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Adam Smith argued that people should be able to freely pursue their economic dreams.
#68- Woman And The Enlightenment
The woman helped the Philosophes get out of troubl with the authorities because of their high social status. Louis XV's wife, Marquise de Pompadour helped Diderot avoid censorhip of the encyclopedia. The first publicly open statement for women's rights came from Mary Wollstonecraft.
#69- European Powers In The Age Of Enlightenment
Rulers such as Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria, Frederick II of Prussia are referred to as Enlightened Absolutes. They toyed with the ideas of the Philosophes because thee Philosophes believed in Monarchy. They meshed the ideas of the philosophes withe their own ideas to enhance the power of their states.
#80- The Reign of Terror
The Jacobins and the Girondins still argued over the Revolution and in the convention the Jacobins sat on a raised platform that earned them the name of the Mountains and in the middle sat the rest and they were called the plains. The spring of 1793 became known as the Reign of Terror. it was started by the conter-revolutionary revolt called the Vendee. The Convention made two commitees and the Commitee of Public Safety, became the Dictator over the next year. their leaders included Danton and Robepierre. A Girondin stabbed to death the writer Marat who supported the sans-culottes and the sans-coulottes demanded that the Girondin members leave. The leader of the French army, Lazare Carnot, called for a levee en massse and all of the citizens in France had to serve in the armies. This proved successful. The poweruful Jacobins now now made a Republic of Virtue in which they obliterated all signs of the monarchy. Robespierre established the Cult of the Supreme Being , challenging the Catholic church greatly and this turned into a political backlash for the Commitee of Public Safety. The guillotine became the symbol of the age and the people were upset with the government. Robespierre was overthrown by the Convention.
#81- The DIrectory(1795-1799)
The thermidorians, or people who oppesed Robespierre, produced a new government led by a council of five men called directors; and their were two houses that made up the legislature. There were two houses, the Council o Ancients and the Council of Fove Hundred. They soon began to wipe out the traces of the sans-coulettes and the Jacobins, but the Jacobins still made some trouble. They had a riot and the Directory ordered Napolean Bonaparte to put it down. He did and he saved the Directory.
#82- Napolean
Napolean originally supported the Jacobins, but when they were overthrown, his military success saved him. Napolean sweeped through italy and easily conquered most of them. Then, in an attemt to weaken Great Britain, he took control of Egypt. the English Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1798. NApolean lost Egypt and fled back to France where he over took the Directory and eventually became the First Consul of France, which was supported by the people. Napolean then created a concordat with Pope Pius VII and he said that Catholicism was the main religion of France. The people made him Consul for life The Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleanic Code, which gave rights to property owners but limited the rights of women. Napolean made himself Emperor of France.
#83- France at War With Europe
Napolean began to advance his armies and they were unpopular because they had to live off the land. Napolean was considered a military genius and he used all of his resources. Although Great Britain and France were at peace according to the Treaty of Amiens, he soon attacked them. He sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. and at the battle of Trafalgar, lost his fleet, but he was great on land. When Austria and Great Britain and Russia joined forces in the Third Coalition, Napolean set out to destroy the Austrians, which he accomplished at the Battle of Ulm. He destroyed the Ruussians at Austerlitz and then took over the Holy Roman Empire and created the Confederacy of the Rhine, in which he brought French influence into 16 German states. The Prussians joined the Third Coalition and then they were destroyed at the Battle of Jena. The Russian tsar, Alexander I signed the Treaty of Tilist which made Prussia the ally of France and then he waged economic war against Great Britain. He established the Continental system. This just made his allies mad.
#84- The Defeat Of Napolean
Napolean's eventual downfall came around because of the Peninsula war in Spain, growing nationalism in Fench occupied countries, and the fateful 1812 invasion of Russia.
#85- The War in Spain
On his way to conquer Portugal, their wa a riot in Spain and Charles IV was killed. His son Ferdinand VII came to the throne and Napolean tried to conquer Spain but the Patriots and locals fought him with Guerilla style tactics and it was affective.
#86- Growing Nationalism in Europe
In Germany, some tinkers turned to Prussia to make a German state that was longed for. Baron von Stein came to power in Prussia and he reformed the system and created a motivated army. He also promoted capable officers.
#87- The 1812 Invasion of Russia
In 1812, Napolean took his grand army of 600,000 into Russia expecting to defeat themin open combat but they kept on retreating into their landscape and finally napolean had to draw outand return to France with only 40,000 men left. Finally prussia, Russia, Austria, and a Great Britain force led by the Duke of Wellington, formed an alliance and smashed France.
#88- The Congress of Vienna, the Bourbon, and the Hundred Days
The victorious allies demanded that the old Bourban monarch be placed on the throne of France. The brother of Louis XVI was placed on the throne. Napolean was exiled wnd he had no debts. At the Conference of Vienna, the allies tried to put a cap on the revolutionary bottle and Austria's Prince Metternich was the architect. They made sure that no state in Europe could ever take over again. In 1815, Napolean returned to France and became emperor and, because of the white terror, was popular. He promised for peace but he new that the powers would soon kick off the throne and he raised an army. At the Battle of Waterloo he was defeated and after the Hundred Days, or the return of Napolean, he was exiled to an island in the Atlantic where he died.