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52 Cards in this Set

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#168- Louis XVI
Louis XV banned the parlements because they said that he couldn't reform the income for revenue after the Seven Years war. Louis XVI had to bring back the Parlements to please the noble and they changed the source of revenue, which led to the Revolution by 1789. Louis XVI might have been a good constitutional monarch, but he was a bad absolutists monarch. The people din't like his wife Marie-Antoinette and she didn't like him. She was not liked by the people and she was ignorant of the people's problems. France wasn't bankrupt, but the monarchy was after all of the wars. The debts were huge. Louis tried to convince the nobilities to give up their tax free status, but he wasn't to convincing.
#169- Marie Antoinette
She was the wife of Louis XVi and the people hated her. She was ignorant and rude about the people's problems . She was very unhappy with her marraige. She distanced the monarchy from the rest of the people because no one liked her.
#170- Problems Facing the French Monarchy
The French Monarchy was bankrupt in 1789 because of all of ther wars. Louis XVI was desperate because the debt was so large. The problem was that the French monarchy failed to tap into the wealth of their nation. Louis had to try and convince the nobilities to give up their tax free status but he failed miserably.
#171- Estates-General
Louis got so desperate that he called an Assembaly of Notables and asked if they would support a new land tax. The nobilities said no and asked for the Estates General so that their power would not be tested. Louis called the Estates General in 1789 and the question of voting came up.
#172- The first, second, and third estates
The First estate was the clergy men and men of religious status. They had the first and foremost votes. Then came the second estate which was the nobles who voted after the First Estate. The third estat was the majority of Frenchmen. They thought they should be the First Estate and many of the simpl priests felt more with the Third Estate then with the First Estate.
#173- Abbe Sieyes
Abbe Sieyes, a lower clergy man wrote that the Third Estate should have more power. He wrote: What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up to the present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become Something.
#174- National Assembly
On the first day of the Estates General the King angered the Third Estate so they held off going to the estate for weeks. Finnaly, when they did go, they demand that it be a national assembly, not a assembly based on medieval social status.
#175- Tennis Court Oath
The King tried to stop the Third Estate from meeting because of their revolutionary type ideas, so he barred off their meeting hall. They went and met at a tennis court, in what became known as the Tennis Court Oath, and they swore they wouldn't stop meeting until kingdom was on solid foundations. Finally on June 27, Louis XVI agreed to join all three estates.
#176- Ballistae
The people of Paris began to fear that Louis would violently force te National Assembly to break up, so they began to revolt and they claimed the Balliste and the weapons inside.
#177- Commune of Paris
As a result of the seizing of the Ballistae, Louis recognized the Commune of Paris as the government.
#178- Marquis de Lafayette
Louis also agreed to the formation of a National Guard led by Marquis de lafayette, who was already known as a champion od liberty for hi involvement in the French Revolution.
#179- Great Fear
The peasants were starting to get paranoid because of the poor harvest and the huge taxes. This came to be known as the Great Fear. This forced the nobles to give up their special rights and that made all of the people equal.
#180- Decleration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
In the Decleration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the people called for a national government, not a monarchy. This Constitution said that only men have these rights, not women.
#181- Olympe de Gouges
Olympe de Gouges wrote The Rights of Women and said that women should be equal to men. On October 5, a mob of women went to Versailles and dragged the royal family to Paris where they could watch the king.
#182- assignats and the Civil Contsitution of the Church (aka, the Clergy)
To counteract the debt, the National Assembly confiscated Catholic Land and in the Civil Cinstitution of the Church, the Church became a stately paid thing. In 1791 they made a constitutional Monarchy. They set up a complex system of voting and the King still retained some powers. Teh National Assembly gave some new powers to the people and they gave more freedom.
#183- Constitution of 1791
In 1791 they made a constitutional Monarchy. They set up a complex system of voting and the King still retained some powers. Teh National Assembly gave some new powers to the people and they gave more freedom.
#184- emigres
Many of the French noble were living on th border of their country becasue they were trying to restore their country to its former status. thes factions, called emigres,t were led by the Count of Artois, the youngest brother of Louis XVI. He convinced Louis to flee. When Louis got to a border town in France, the National Assembly caught him and brought him back. Because they were still interested in the Constitutional Monarchy, they sadi he had been abducted. This was setting the stage for the eventual downfall of the constitutional monarchy.
#185- Flight to Varennes
These factions, called emigres,t were led by the Count of Artois, the youngest brother of Louis XVI. He convinced Louis to flee. When Louis got to a border town, called Varennes, in France, the National Assembly caught him and brought him back. Because they were still interested in the Constitutional Monarchy, they sadi he had been abducted. This was setting the stage for the eventual downfall of the constitutional monarchy.
#186- Jacobins
The two most famous parties in the National assemblies were the Jacobins and the Girondins. The Girodins were more powerful than the jacobins.
#187- Girondins
The Girondins wanted to free the other states in Europe from absolutism so they declared war aginst Austria and Prussia. This sealed the fate of the rayl family. The early stages of the war didn't go well because of the lack of bread and political unrest. They were also fearful of the Prussian Commander,the Duke of Brunswick because he said that if they harmed the king, then he would destroy Paris.
#188- sans-cullotes
Despite the Girondins assurances, the war wasn't going well. The war brought about a radical situation in France where the sans-cullotes were trying to solve the problem of short bread rations. They were also trying to comfort the chagrins who were mad at being labeled passive citizens with no voting rights.
#189- National Convention
Tha Paris Commune then made the National Assembly hold elections for a new political body called the Convention. This group was made up of male suffrages and they were getting the task of drawing a new constitution to end the contsitutional monarchy.
#190- William Pitt (the younger)
William ptt the Younger thought that the constitutional monarchy would bring about the end of the rivalry between Britain and France and even said that France would become a brilliant European power.
#191- Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke, in his book Reflection on the French Revolution, said that eventually force would take over. He believed that the political system had to evolve not be revolutionized. He thought that force would have to rule in order to keep things steady. The French Armies soon became threats to all of Europe as they advanced into the Netherlands.
#192- Reign of Terror
The spring of 1793 became known as the Reign of Terror. It was started by the conter-revolutionary revolt called the Vendee. The Convention made two commitees and the Commitee of Public Safety, became the Dictator over the next year. Their leaders included Danton and Robepierre. A Girondin stabbed to death the writer Marat who supported the sans-culottes and the sans-coulottes demanded that the Girondin members leave. The leader of the French army, Lazare Carnot, called for a levee en massse and all of the citizens in France had to serve in the armies. This proved successful. The poweruful Jacobins now now made a Republic of Virtue in which they obliterated all signs of the monarchy. Robespierre established the Cult of the Supreme Being , challenging the Catholic church greatly and this turned into a political backlash for the Commitee of Public Safety. The guillotine became the symbol of the age and the people were upset with the government. Robespierre was overthrown by the Convention.
#193- The Mountain
The Jacobins and the Girondins still argued over the Revolution and in the convention the Jacobins sat on a raised platform that earned them the name of the Mountains and in the middle sat the rest and they were called the plains.
#194- Vendee
The Reign of Terror was started by a counter revolutionary revolt called the Vendee. This was largely inspired by anger about the restrictions placed on the church.
#195- Committee of Public Safety
The Convention made two commitees and the Commitee of Public Safety, became the Dictator over the next year. Their leaders included Danton and Robepierre. A Girondin stabbed to death the writer Marat who supported the sans-culottes and the sans-coulottes demanded that the Girondin members leave.
#196- Maximmilian Robespierre
The leaders of the Committee of public Safety included Danton, Carnot, and Robespierre. Robespierre's anti monarchical sentimentsprobably came when the royal coach splashed him as he was about to read latin verses ha written for the king at the age of 11. These men belonged to the Jacobins who were gaining influence at the expense of the Girondins.
#197- levee en masse
The leader of the French army, Lazare Carnot, called for a levee en massse and all of the citizens in France had to serve in the armies. This proved successful.
#198- Republic of Virtue
The poweruful Jacobins now now made a Republic of Virtue in which they obliterated all signs of the monarchy. They changed the calendars and made the weeks ten days long which angered workers. They also attacked the Christain Churcha dn had all religious crosses removed from Buildings.
#199- Cult of Supreme Being
Robespierre established the Cult of the Supreme Being , challenging the Catholic church greatly and this turned into a political backlash for the Commitee of Public Safety. The guillotine became the symbol of the age and the people were upset with the government. Robespierre was overthrown by the Convention.
#200- Guillotine
The jacobins began to execute many people who weren't for their cause. The Guillotine became the symbol of the age.
#201- Directory
The thermidorians, or people who oppesed Robespierre, produced a new government led by a council of five men called directors; and their were two houses that made up the legislature.
#202- Council of Ancients/ Council of 500
There were two houses, the Council o Ancients and the Council of Fove Hundred. They soon began to wipe out the traces of the sans-coulettes and the Jacobins, but the Jacobins still made some trouble. They had a riot and the Directory ordered Napolean Bonaparte to put it down. He did and he saved the Directory.
#203- Napolean Bonaparte
Napolean originally supported the Jacobins, but when they were overthrown, his military success saved him. Napolean sweeped through italy and easily conquered most of them. Then, in an attemt to weaken Great Britain, he took control of Egypt. the English Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1798. NApolean lost Egypt and fled back to France where he over took the Directory and eventually became the First Consul of France, which was supported by the people. Napolean then created a concordat with Pope Pius VII and he said that Catholicism was the main religion of France. The people made him Consul for life The Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleanic Code, which gave rights to property owners but limited the rights of women. Napolean made himself Emperor of France.
#204- Admiral Horatio Nelson
When napolean took over Egypt, he wasn't able to do nuch on land because Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the French Fleet in 1798.
#205- First Consul
Napolean lost Egypt and fled back to France where he over took the Directory and eventually became the First Consul of France, which was supported by the people. Napolean then created a concordat with Pope Pius VII and he said that Catholicism was the main religion of France.
#206- Plebiscite
These were votes that Napolean held for the people to decide on some of his actions. They were mainly a tool to get the aristocracy to agree with his terms.
#207- Concordat of 1801
Napolean then created a concordat with Pope Pius VII and he said that Catholicism was the main religion of France. This was called the Concordat of 1801.
#209- Treaty of Amiens
The treaty of Amiens said that France and Great Britain were at peace but Napolean only saw this as a temporary measure because he sought means to limit the British.
#210- Batlle of Trafalgar
At the Battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Nelson died but the French Fleet was defeated diminishing any hope pf landing in England.
#211- Third Coalition
Austria, Great Britain, and Russia joined forces in the Third Coalition. Napolean set out to destroy the Austrians, which he accomplished at the Battle of Ulm. He destroyed the Ruussians at Austerlitz and then took over the Holy Roman Empire.
#212- Confederation of the Rhine
Napolean took over the Holy Roman Empire and created the Confederacy of the Rhine, in which he brought French influence into 16 German states. This resulted into a redrawing of the map and that made prussia scared of the French. They then joined the third coalition but Napolean soon destroyed them at the Battle of Jena.
#213- Treaty of Tilsit
The Russian tsar, Alexander I signed the Treaty of Tilist which made Prussia the ally of France and greatly reduced the area fo their kingdom and then he waged economic war against Great Britain. He established the Continental system. This just made his allies mad.
#214- Continental System
The Continental Syatem banned all British goods form being imported by the states Napolean had conquered. This plan backfired because the states he had conquered also lost economic power.
#215- Duke of Wellington
In 1812, Napolean took his grand army of 600,000 into Russia expecting to defeat themin open combat but they kept on retreating into their landscape and finally napolean had to draw outand return to France with only 40,000 men left. Finally prussia, Russia, Austria, and a Great Britain force led by the Duke of Wellington, formed an alliance and smashed France
#216- Congress of Vienna
The victorious allies demanded that the old Bourban monarch be placed on the throne of France. The brother of Louis XVI was placed on the throne. Napolean was exiled wnd he had no debts. At the Conference of Vienna, the allies tried to put a cap on the revolutionary bottle and Austria's Prince Metternich was the architect.
#217- Klemens vonMetternich
At the Conference of Vienna, the allies tried to put a cap on the revolutionary bottle and Austria's Prince Metternich was the architect. They made sure that no state in Europe could ever take over again. In 1815, Napolean returned to France and became emperor and, because of the white terror, was popular. He promised for peace but he knew that the powers would soon kick off the throne and he raised an army.
#218- Battle of Waterloo
Napolean then was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Wellington and Marshal Blucher, the leader of the Prusian forces.
#219- Hundred Days
This was the name given to the glorious return of Napolean as the Empire of France and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
#208- Napoleanic Code
The people made him Consul for life The Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleanic Code, which gave rights to property owners but limited the rights of women. Napolean made himself Emperor of France.