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106 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
#220- Conservatism (Burke, de Maistre, Meternich)
Modern conservatism is rooted in the writings of Edmund Burke, who said in the Reflection on the Revolution in France, that political changes should come over time. In Europe it was different and people believed that the politics should be rooted in the church.
#221- Nationalism
Nationalism is rooted in the idea that the people should be primarily loyal to their Naiton. This helped create the idea of layalty to a Naiton, not a city or village. Because everyone wanted the French soldiers out of their lands, they united under one nation and people like the Grimm brothers started recordin g old German tales to make it seem like the Germans were all that should and have ever been their.
#222- national conscription
The roots can be found in the beliefs of the philosophes and their emphaisi on individual natural rights and the support for limits on political authorities throught the writings of constitutions and formations of parlaiments.
#223- Liberalism
The roots can be found in the beliefs of the philosophes and their emphaisi on individual natural rights and the support for limits on political authorities throught the writings of constitutions and formations of parlaiments. The most important member of what became known as the classical school was Adam Smithe who wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. H ebelieved that the government had too much control over the economy. teh classical economists- Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo- reached conclusions that can only be viwewd as deeply depressing. Malthus argued that there wasn't enough food for the growing poplulation in his Essay on Populaiton. Ricardo argued that factoriy owners were going to have to lower wges which benefited the factory owners but these propositions were obsolete.
#224- John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill began as a disciple of Jeremy Bentham and he said that the government should do whatevers best for the majority of the population which became known as Utalitarianism. Mill later wrote his most famous work called On Liberty. Mill also argued for the rights of Women.
#225- Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham was the person who taught started the idea of utalitarianism.
#226- Socialism
Socialists believed all people should have the same political rights and the same economic rights. The early socialists writers were called Utopian Socialists and were criticized becasue their beliefs weren't scientific. Some people said taht the community should be organized scientificlally like putting a certain number of people on a certain area of land.
#227- Utopian Socialism
The early socialists writers were called Utopian Socialists and were criticized becasue their beliefs weren't scientific.
#228- Henri de Saint-Simon
Henri argued that wsociety needed to be organized on a scientific basis. he argued for the creation of a heirarchial society led by an intellectual class that improved society and, most important, the lot of those on the bottom of societies social order.
#229- Charles Fourier
Charles created a bluepint for a cooperative communtiy. He said we needed a group of about 1620 self contained people living on 5,000 acres of land. He said that the people would rotate jobs so everyone had to do the boring jobs. He said that children could deal with the garbage since they like playing in dirt.
#230- Robert Owen
He made a town in Sweden where everyone worked on a mill and the people were housed well and the children recieved an education.
#231- Charter of 1814
When Louis XVIII returned to the throne after apolean's final defeat at Waterloo
#232- Charles X
After the death of Louis XVIII, Charles X was appointed. A year after taking the throne, Charles issued a law of Sacrelige which made death the punishment for any attack on the Church. In 1829, Charles appointed the Prince of Polignac as his chief minister. Everyone didn't like him because he was an ultra-royalist.
#233- July Ordinances
Polignac then issued the July Ordinances which dissolved the newly formed assembley, took away the right to vote from the upper bourgoise, and imposed rigid censorship.
#234- Revolutions of 1830
Revolutions were sparked throughout France. The Liberals were afraid of the Parisian mob and elected Louis Phillipe as their leader. After the Revolutions of 1830, Louis Phillipe was elected King and that started te beggining of what became known as the July Monarchy.
#235- Carbonari
In Naples, King Ferdinand had promised, while in exile, to make his kingdom a constitutional monarchy and when he was restored to the throne, he didn't give up his absolute rights. This led to a revolt including members of secret nationalistic societies such as Carbonari. metternich wanted to put these revolutions down and at the Troppau Protocol, he, Austria, Russia, and Prussia stated that they could intervene in any revolution and the Naples revolution was put down.
#236- Troppau Protocol
The Troppau Protocol said that the European powers could stamp out any revolts if they saw fit.
#237- Greek Revolt of 1821 and the Eastern Question
Liberal everywhere looked to the Greek Revolt to help them gain power because democracy had sprang up from Greece. This was also tied to the Eastern Question or the question of what to do with the Ottaman Empire. The Greeks broke off from the Ottoman Empire after help from the Russians, British and French. Serbia was also released from the Empire.
#238- Nicholas I and the Decembrist Revolt
Russia had emerged as a great European power but after Alexander I died, his heir, Constantine turned down the throne so Nicholas I got it and he ruled with an iron fist. He brutally put down the Decembrist Revolt which showed how hard of a ruler he was.
#239- Peterloo Massacre
The fear of social unrest was realized after the Napoleanic Wars in 1819 when a large crowd of 60,000 gathered in St Peter's field in Manchester and demanded fundamental poolitical changes. This was a peaceful protest, but soldiers on hand killed 11 people and this became known as the Peterloo Massacre. This made parlaiment pass the Six Acts, which banned demonstration and imposed censorship.
#240- Combination Acts and Reform Bill of 1832
In 1824 they repealed the Combination Acts which had banned union activity. In 1832 the Great Refoem Bill was passed and it showed that political reform was possible without the barricades. The Great Reform Bill also made it possible for men who had become wealthy because of Industrialization to vote.
#241- Poor Law of 1834
The Poor Law of 1834 said that poor people who were complaining had to enter a workhouse. Slavery was aoutlawed in 1833 and
#242- Factory Act of 1833
The Factory Act of 1833 reduced the number of hours children could work.
#243- Corn laws and their Repeal
The Corn laws were laws that placed taxes on any imported grain and they repealed them thinking that if food costed less, then they could pay the factory workers less.
#244- Irish potato Famine
The Great potato Famine was a result of poor agriculture in Europe and 1 million people died in Ireland.
#245- Guizot and King Loius Phillipe
In 1848 a revolution took place in France that sparked revolutions all around the world. Teh government thought the political reformaitons had gone too far and said that if people didn't like their rights, then they should get rich. The government banned open political meeteings so the people had to hold them in privacy and they called them banquets. Louis Philip was forced to resign his chief minister, Francoise Gouizot, because he banned a banquet and the people were revolting in Paris. Then the workers forced Louis Phillipe to flee to England and liberals and radicals began to fight so that caused more revolutions.
#246- Louis Blanc and the National workshops
The radicals were led by Louis Blanc. They called for a fundamental social and economic change. Blanc's supporters successfully pressured the provisional government to set up workshops for the nation's poor and unemployed.
#247- June Days
The provisional governemnt made a goup of five moderates and they ruled but that led to a worker's revolt which was quickly put down. The governemnt then closed the national workshops which had been set up to provide a job for the poor. This led to the June days which were a violent struggle among the social classes and 10,000 people died.
#249- French Second Republic
The republicans then felt strong enough to make the Second republic which was headed by a president who was voted on. Louis Napolean, Napolean's nephew, was voted president and he soon named himself Emperor.
#250- Louis Napolean/Napolean III
Louis Napolean was Napolean's nephew and he was elected president. After a serious constitutional problem, he gave himself dictatorial powers and became Emperor Napolean III.
#251- Frederick William IV
The events in France had huge reprecussions in the German states. Frederick WilliamIV, the prussian king, had promised some reformations for a long time but he never made any changes. In 1848 a revolt in Berlin broke out and there were two shots fired. Horrified by this, Frederick withdrew his army out of the city leaving him with no defense. Then he held an election for a constituent assembly and they drew up a new constitution. After a few months, he brought his army back in and dissolved the assembly.
#252- Prussian Constitution
In December 1848 Frederick drew his own contstitution. His contstitution allowed for freedom of the press and he created a two house legislature with adult male suffragists for the lower house. He did make this less important by weighting the votes in favor of those who payed more taxes.
#253- Frankfurt Parliament
In 148, many high ranking members from all of the German states net in Franfurt to discuss terms of a unified German state. From the start there were many disputes like whether it should be a monarchy or a Republic. Then they had to discuss borders. One group, called the Grossedeutsch, wanted all German lands, includin the territories in Bohemia and Austria. Teh Kleindeutsch only want Prussia and the other small German states. This was the plan that was agreed on. Then they offered the German Imperial throne to William the King of Prussia and he denied it. This dissolved te idea and may have affected Germany's future very gravely.
#254- Chartism-People's Charter of 1838
In Russia the revolutions of 1848 were avoided. In Great Britain they also avoided these revolutions but this year makred the peak for a movement known as Chartism. The Peoples Charter of 1838 contained six points: Universal adult-male suffrage, Secret bellot, Abolition of property requirements for members of parlaiment, payment to members of parlaimnet, equal electoral districts, annual parlaiments with yearly elections. The charterists made things in the capital very uneasy and the charterists were putting huge pressure on parlaiment by saying they would become a national assembly that would take over the government. They were on the verge of a reform but they got lucky and five of the six charters weren't passed.
#255- Industrial Revolution/ end of domestic system
The Industrial Revolution came about because of technological advances throught he ages. The development of factories replaced the domestic system whic had been used thorughout Europe for centuries.
#256- Resons why Britain industrialized first
Th political stability and their tolerance toward religious minoritied helped boost the economy. The Quakers played a role in industrialization and were free to engage in economically boosting ideas without interferenc fro the state. Tehy also had a great banking system which allowed in small investing everywhere. They had grown rich form there good agriculture and their vast overseas empire. They also ha a lot of coal and iron. The population increase helped because there were more workers and more consumers.
#257- John Kay
In 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle which was great way to make cloth. This did however present a problem because there wasn't nearly enough thread.
#258- James Hargreaves
James solved the problem of not enough thread by inventing the spinning jenny which coul spin 16 spools of thread at once. This soon improved to 129 spools at once.
#259 Richard Arkwright
Richard created the water frame which combined spools with rollers to create a spinning machine to spin cltoh. He soon employed 200 people under one roof in what became known as the first facory.
#260- James Watt
James Watt studied the steam pump and adapted it for use in the industrial world. He invented the steam engine rather than the stea pump. A decade later, he invented the engine that turned the wheel. This made the factories independent of water power and increased the pace of change.
#261- Zollverein
The Prussians created the Zollverein in 1834 to aid in the spread of trade and goods. it abolished tariffs between the German states.
#262 Sadler Committee
THe children were being forced to work in the factories because of the low wages. They were being beaten and Great Britain's Sadler Committee wanted to prove this and expose it. As a result, the Parliament passed bills that said children under nine couldn't work in the textile mills, that children under 12 couldn't qork more than nine hours and that children under 18 couldn't work more than twelve.
#263- Luddites
Some people, called Luddites, refused to accept the rise of machinery. They tried to destroy it because it affected their way of life. Workers sought to create cooperative societies, who did things like funeral benefits and other small things for members. People now created unions stick together and fight for rights.
#264- Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels
Many workers turned to socialism to improve their rights. The most significant strand in socialist thought was scietific socialism offered by Karl Marx. marx was living in exile because people didn't like his view so he and his colleague, Friedrich Engels, created a Communist League to link the far flung German socialists who were also living in exile. These writers teamed up and wrotethe pamphlet: The Communist Manifesto, which said that all history from the beggining of time consists of social classes.
#265- Communist manifesto: Burgeoisie & proleterat
Marx also said that the proletariat, or the working class, were going to take over the bourgeois who were now the dominant class. marx also wrote Das Kapital which criticizes capitalists.
#266- First International
In 1864 Marx organized the First International which was created to afford a central medium of communication and cooperation.
#267- Second International
After the First Inaernational dissolved and marx died, Engels made the Second International, a loose federation of the world's socialist parties heavily influenced by Marxism.
#268- Crimean War
The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and so did Great Britain and France. They battled in the Crimean region. The main losses happened because the soldiers did in the filthy field hospital, which inspired Florence Nightingale to revolutionize the nursing profession.
#269- Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingal revolutionized teh Nursing profession because the soldiers in the Crimean War mainly died from disease in the filthy hospitals.
#270- Risorgimento & Camillo di Cavour
The prime minister of the King of Sardinia, Count Camillo di Cavour, wanted to unite Italy under his king Victor Emmanuel. Covour was quite different then early nationalists, such as Giuseppe Mazzini, in that he was interested in making Sardinia more powerful. If he was going to succeed then he needed foreign aid to expel the Austrians so he turned to France who held a grudge against Austria. The war began in 1859 but after a few victories, Napolean stopped the conflict because he was horrified by the amount of casualties. this angered Cavour and he resigned but resumed a year later.
#271- Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini saw unification in romanticized terms unlike Cavour.
#272- Guiseppe Garibaldi
In southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi emerged and wanted to attack France because he didn't like the treaty they had made with Italy. Cavour encourages him to attack Sicily thinking Garibaldi would be wiped out but he succeeded. Cavour then felt threatened so he led his troops down south and unified Italy under King Vistor Emmanuel. The only two places that weren't a part of Italy were Rome and venetia. They soon joined and Rome became the capital.
#273- Unification of Germany
In Germany people had been wanting a unified state since the Napoleanic war. Prussia soon took the lead in doing htis and they became very powerful especially after Otto von Bismarck became the Prime Minister.
#274- Otto von Bismarck
Prussia soon took the lead in doing htis and they became very powerful especially after Otto von Bismarck became the Prime Minister. He put into work a military plan that the liberals didn't like and started to conquer. In 1866 he had conquered Denmark and declared war with Austria and Italy was hiw alliance. his modernized army soon conquere Austria and he turned his eye toward France.
#275- William I (WIllhelm)
William, the king of Prussia, had a cousin that was about to take the throne of Spain but Napolean III didn't want that so he convinced the king not to take the throne. When William sent a telegram, called the Ems dispatch, to Bismarck to tell him what had happened, bismarck changed the words to make it seem like Prussia was insulting France so France declared war. At the battle of Sedan, prussia won and created a unified german state with William as the king.
#276- Schleswig-Holstein
Bismarck modernized the Prussian army and formed an alliance with Austri againsti Denmark over the disputed territories of Schleswig and Hollstein. After easily defeating the Danes, Schleswig becane Prussian and Hollstein became Austrian. Bismarck's next goal was a war with Austria.
#277- Seven Weeks War
Bismarck soon formed an alliance with Italy who wanted to see Austria out of their lands. He also got a promise of no participation from France and procceeded to wage war tih Austria, saying it was because of the petty dispute over the Hollstein territory. He soon defeated Austria in a mere seven weeks and wisely treated it with lenency because he wanted to start his next plan- War with France.
#278- North German Confederation
Bismarck annexed those Small northern German states who had supported Austria. The others, however, gladly joined him in what was known as the Northe German Confedereation. The Southern States stayed independent but had a militaristic alliance with Bismarck.
#279- Ems Dispatch (Franco-Prussian War)
William, the king of Prussia, had a cousin that was about to take the throne of Spain but Napolean III didn't want that so he convinced the king not to take the throne. When William sent a telegram, called the Ems dispatch, to Bismarck to tell him what had happened, bismarck changed the words to make it seem like Prussia was insulting France so France declared war. At the battle of Sedan, prussia won and created a unified german state with William as the king.
#280- three Ways German Unification Changed European History
Three ways the German unification changed history in Europe was that the new German state created a bitter enemy of France which lost the territories of Alsace and Lorraine and was forced to pay a huge indemnity to Germany for having started the war. Teh economic power of this new German state created rising tensions withGreat Britain and helped set into motion the rush to build colonial empires in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The mad scramble began when Bismarck encouraged the French to build an empire in Africa to take their mind of the loss of Alsace-Lorraine. Eventually all the nation of Europe sought to create overseas empires as a means to furhter their political interests within Europe that was trying to adjust to the tensions that arose from the development of a powerful German State.
#281- Kulturkampf
In an attempt to control his vast territories, Bismarck attacked the two groups he thought a threat to the internal cohesion of Reich- Catholics and Socialists. This attack on the Catholics became known as kulturkampf. He insisted on being the director of the Catholic church and no changes could be made without his consent. Eventually he backed away for fear of revolt.
#282- Second French Empire
France finally seemed stable after the creation of teh French Third Republic. When Louis Napolean took the presidency of the Second Republis, he held a plebescite to see if he should become dictator for life. This period was known as the Second French Empire but it was short lived becasue Napolean soon died in the Franco Prussian War.
#283- George hausmann
During the ten year Napolean ruled, France prospered greatly. teh city of Paris changed greatly and became a modern city under the guidance of Geore Haussmann. he cleared many of the slums of the city and made wide avenues which have become very famous. He aslo made aquaducts and a sewer to make the city much more sanitary, eliminating cholera which had been a problem in the early part fo the century.
#284- paris Commune
After the Second Empire fell, the Hird Republic was formed. Right away it face problems and a riot broke out in Paris. This resulted in the creation of the Paris Commune, a radical branch of government made by the anarchy after the Franco-Prussian War.
#285- Third French Republic
After putting down many riots, on that resulted in the killing of 25,000 Parisians, they settled down and created a two house parlaimentary body conatining a lower house voted in by a group of male voters, and a senate chosen by no organized voting. The president was a weak officebecause it was directly responsible to the chamber of deputies. Teh Third Republic proved to be the most durable of all of France's Republics.
#286- Great Exhibition of 1851 & the Crystal Palace
Great Britain enjoyed very good stability during the nineteenth century. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 Britain showed off their great success in industrialization. One example was the Crystal Palace which showed the flourish society they lived in.
#287- Benjamin Disraeli
Under the direction of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, the Second Refoem Bill was created and it gave more voting rights to urban households.
#288- William Gladstone
Benjamin's successor and rival, William Gladstone made this bill for countrymen also. This long Reign of Queen Victoria saw a diminish in power of the monarchy.
#289- Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria's long reign saw a great diminishing in the power of the monarchy and they couldn't evchosethe prm Mnier.
#290- AlexnderII and Emancipaton of 1861
Under Alexander II Russia finally began to change and serfdom was outlawed in an emancipation proclomation in 1861. He established political states but never wrote a constituion or developed a parlaiment. he also westernized Russia in other ways.
#291- Astro Hungarian Empire
Austria was being weakened in the nineteenth century and they were losing power. They had lost their Italian territories and Prussia conquered them. They created a Astro-Hungarian Empire. Eache State was to be independent bu united under on ruler, Francis Joseph.
#292- Young Turks
The Ottoman Empire also wanted to get more Westernized. The government planned some things to hurry this along, but the Young Turks took it much farther. They made it a constitutional monarchy. They were always weak until they sided with the central powers in the first world war.
#293- Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
Charles Darwin was one of the briliant minds of his time. he traveled to many places including the Galapagos islands in Africa. In his famous book The Origin of Species, he explained that traits for evolution are passed down and those who don't have then, fail to prduce. He called this natural selection. he began to gather followers. He soon found out that we had evolved over time and that gained him enemies.
#294- Herbert Spencer
Darwin's famous follower, Herbert Spencer, was the one who said "survival of the fittest". He believed that the government should therefore give up on the poor and allow them to take the natural course of life. The people who believed these ideas were known as social Darwinists.
#295- Second Industrial Revolution
Europe continued to grow economically and this period became known as the Second Industrial Revolution.
#296- Henry Beseemer
In 1856, during the Age of Steel, Henry Bessemer created a way to produce steel in larger quantities and keep the cost the same.
#297- 19th century Transportation changes
Europe's railways expanded greatly. the Suez Canal was built. Faster ships replaced steam engines. perishable foods were now transported around the world because of the ice producing machines that had been invented. In 1885 Karl Bentz created a gas powered engine. In 1903 the Wright brothers made the first airplane.
#298- 19th century Communication and Education
Universal Education meant more writing. the telegraph was invented in 1830. 1076, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. motina pictures were invented in the 1890s and phonographs were invented by Thomas Edison in 1876.
#299- Alfred Nobel
The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel made dynamite wnd they could blast through rock and hills. This played a huge role in the expansion of railways all over the world
#300- "Middle Class"
The Industrial Revolution brought a change in the social class of Europe and the aristocracy diminished. The secong half of the nineteenth century has sometimes been called the Age of the Middle Class. This class wasn't even there during pre- industrial times. These peole enjoyed new luxuries such as running water and servants.
#301- "Victorian"
The middle class seemed to live by a Victorian morality. This was very priggish and it was expected to be the social norm. Women were treated unfarily and left out of jobs and high schooling. This led to revolts for women rights.
#302- Edward Bernstein and revisionist socialism
Edward bernstein challenged soem of Marx's basic ideasin Evolutionary Socialism. He and his followers were labeled as revisionists and they said that capitalism was not about to collapse, because it was firmly rooted in society. This made it necessary for Socialists to work towrd the progressive impovement o working-class society.
#303- Karl Kautsky
He held firm to marx's ideas and were very harsh on revisionists. He deemed revisionists as heretics even though he himself did alter some of Marx's ideas. unlike Marx, he believed that the revolution would be a civilized affair.
#304- anarchism
This was started by Joseph Pruodhorn who said property is theft and that we didn't need authority to make rules, but that they should come from society itself. Anarchists wanted to see the government demolished and said that the people should govern themselves in small working bodies.
#304- anarchism
Joseph Proudhon was the father of anarchism In 1840 he wrote What is Property? and he said that property is theft. Anarchists believed the society shouldn't have to be interfered with from the government and that we should make ou own rules based on the problems with society.
#305- Syllabus of Errors
Spain in 1851 declared Catholicism as their National Religion and Austria started to repeal Catholic power. After the Revolution of 1848, Pope Pius IX was restored to power and then he wrote the Syllabus of Errors, which stated Liberalism as an error.
#306- rerum novarum & Catholic Social movement
In Germany the liberals attacked Catholic Institutions and schools in what was known as the Kulturkampf. In 1891 pope Leo XIII issued Rerum Noverum and said that Catholics had an obligation towards the poor. In primarily Catholic Countries, this led to the Catholic Social movement and in protestant lands the churches began to help the poor more.
#307- Karl Leuger & Anti-Semitism
The nineteenth century brought many new rights to the Jews but social discrimination was still there. Anti Semitism was rising and it based itself on the teachings of Darwin that said Jews were not only a religion but a foreign race. Hitler's first years were in Vienna and it was a very anti Semistic climate because of Karl Leuger who was the mayor of the city.
#308- Zionism
Theodore Herzl then was the leading advocate for Zionism, or creating an all Jewish state. he was horrified at the anti-semitism going on and wanted the Jews to be treated fairly.
#309- "Cult of Domesticity"
Instead of the family working as an economic unit, the man provided for the family. The females place was in the home. This idea led to the cult of domesticity. Women were to make the home a blissful paradise. Books were written to advise the women on how to run their household.
#310- Suffragists (aka Suffragettes)
As the century continued, feminists began to challenge civil ideas and fight for their rights. These feminists split into two groups: the Suffragists and the Women's Social and Political Opinion, formed. The Suffragists wanted to fight peacefully for the vote.
#311- Emmeline Pankhurst
She was the leader of the Women's Social and Political Opinion. They pursued militant fighting and they commited arson, harased people, and damaged property.
#312- Emergence of Social Sciences ( Anthropology, Sociology, Archeology)
People began to apply science to society. leopold von Ranke said that they needed to look at the past through primary documnets so that it wasb't corrupted by the views of today. Due to the increasing global power of European Countries, Anthropology was becoming popular and the people studying it were studying the inferiority of the other races. Anthropology is the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind.
#313- Romanticism
Part of Romanticism inspiration came from Jean-Jacques Rousseau who in his novel Emile, proposed we educate children based on nature not on rote memorization.
#314- Wolfgang von Goehte
Wolfgang von Goethe was the most important writer of this time. He wrote Sorrows of Young Werthe and it was so popular, people started imitating it and using some of the trends from it. He was the greatest figure of the Sturm und Drang era of German Romanticist writers.
#315- William Wodsworth and Coleridge
In their jointly written Lyrical Ballads, William Wodsworth ans Samuel Taylor Coleridge ignored punctuation revealing rejection of classical poetic forms.
#316- Sir Walter Scott and Victor Hugo
Sir Walter Scott and Victor Hugo invented the popular images of the middle ages in their books, Ivanhoe and the Hunchback of Notre Dame.
#317- Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley rebelled against his government in England. He used literature to criticize his government
#318- Lord Byron
Lord Byron challenged the political status quo. He died in Greece fighting the Ottoman Turks on the side of the Greeks.
#319- George Sand
George Sand challenged the endemic oppression that weighed down women. Sand was involved in a famous affair with Frederic Chopin, who iniitially said about her to his family, "Something about her repels me."
#320- Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz
Ludwig von Beethoven started to do things against classical beliefs and was a Romanticist in that manner. Franz Schubert invented the lied and Hector Berlioz tried to tell stories without using singers and actors.
#321- Chopin, Liszt, Verdi
Frederic Chopin and Franz List wrote music based on peasant and gypsy music. Giuseppi Verdi was the leading operatic composer of the Romanticist movement.
#322- Realists and Realism
The realist writer Charles Dickens wrote about the industrial life and how unfair the poor are treated. Mary Ann Eliot wrote under the name George Eliot and in Middlemarch, wrote about the boring life of the middle-class person. Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary, wrote about a women who was decived on the notio of love by books and she commited suicide. Feodor Dostoyevsky was almost executed for participation in an illegal political group and this changed his views on the world so he wrote Crime and Ounishment and The Brothers Karamazov. In France, Emile Zola applied social sciences to his novels.
#323- Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens used his experiences to write his stories. He wrote Hard Times and tells of the struggles of life at the time.
#324- Impressionists
Edouard Manet painted the Luncheon on the Grass and depicted two clothed males and a nude female. This was unacceptable at the time and it changed the way people looked at art. In 1863 Manet and other painters of his kind weren't allowed to show their paintings at the annual salon and the public were furious so Napoleaan IIII mad the Salon Des Refuses for Manet and his fellow painter. These painters were soon labeled as impressionists, which had earlier been used to describe Claude Monet's work. Most impressionists painted everyday things like Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas.
#325- (Post Impressionists) Cezanne and Van Gogh
Paul Cezanne pushed impressionism even father and because of this he is called the father of modern art. Vincent Van Gough was the father of expressionists and put his deepest emotions on his paper.