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35 Cards in this Set

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#133- Events Leading to the Scientific Revolution
Some of the events leading to the scientific Revolution are, the Discovery of the New World, Invention of the Printing Press, Rivalry among Nation States, Reformations, and Reanaissance Humanism.
#134- Thomas Aquinas
During medieval times, they belived in the Churches teachings and the scientific beliefs of the ancient authors. The great worker of this time was Thomas Aquinas, who harminized the Church's teachings with those of the Aristotle. They didn't view science without a view of God also.
#135- Aristotle
Aristotle greatly influenced the medieval thought regarding the ideas of the elements. The concept of the four elements, earth fire wind and water, gave rise to alchemy which was the perfect compound of the elements in their perfect porportions.
#136- Ptolemy and the Medieval Universe
People in the Middle Ages believed the popular work of the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. he said that the world was a stationaary planet around which heavenly bodies moved and the stars remained in orbit.
#137- Copernicus
In 1543 Nicholas Copernicus wrote Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. He said that if the world were to revolve around the sun, then that would eplain some flaws in the Ptolemaic system. The Copernican idea eliminated most of the epicycles, or flaws, in the Ptolemaic system, it didn't eliminate all of them.
#138- Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
Tycho Brahe proposed that the moon and sun revolve around earth, and the rest of the planets revolve around the sun. His student, Johannes Kepler, disagreed with his teaher and said that Copernicus's idea was right but the planets revolved in an eliptical formation.
#139- Galileo
Galileo made a telescope that could magnifie thirty times the normal humans eye. He started to look at the planets and found flaws in most of the previous beliefs. He deduced that Earth is in Perpetual motion. The Catholic Church began to condemn Galileo. The Papal Inquisiton executed people for coming up with theories that were heresay.
#140- Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac was the greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution. Newton tried to explain why the planets orbited in the way that they did and cam eup with the idea of gravity. Newton is the father of calculus.
#141- Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon never conducted any experiments or made any discoveries, but he was still important to scientific discovery. he wrote three major works called the Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620), and New Atlantis (1627) in which he attacked medieval beliefs and said we need to examine evidence from nature to see what is right and what is wrong.
#142- Rene Descartes
Descartes (1596-1650) was kind of an anti-Bacon because he didn't believe in experimentation, rather using reason to go from thought to thought. He did adree with Bacon about the medieval times belief and how it was false. In his famous work, Discourse on Method, he reduced nature to two common elements: mind and matter. he said the matter was made up of an infinite number of particles and that it operated like a whirlpool that provided contact among the particles.
#143- Blaise pascal
Pascal tried to balance his beliefs between the thinking of the Jesuits and that of the complete religious skeptics. his life's attempt to achieve this balance is found in his Pensees. he became involved with the Jansenists, a Catholic fraction that believed in predestination.
#144- Thomas Hobbes and absolutism
Hobbes knew all the great minds of his time, like Galileo and Descartes. he used their experimental methods and applied them to politics. hobbes was horrified by the English Revolution and he said in hid work, the Leviathan, that life was "nasty, brutish, and short". He believed in absolutism and said that the people were obliged to obey one true king so that they wouldn't react on their instinct and just kill, kill, kill.
#145- John Locke
His Two Treatises on Government, were a defense for William and Mary and he revolution. he believed in free will, but man was bound by contract, but he never gave up his rights. if those rights are breeched, then he can rebel. In his Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke attacked the idea that Christianity could be spread by force. His Essay on Human Understanding said that children entered the world with no set ideas.
#146- philosophes
Traditionally, the enlightenment has been associated with France and the great thinkers of the age were known as philosophes .
#147- Voltaire
Volatire was French and he traveled to England and was inspired by the peoples freedom and honor. he was Catholic but despised his religion and any other traditions. He was very anti religion. Candide was his most famous work and it said that humans would not be happy with religion. he became a celebrity and was really fighting religious dominance.
#148- Montesquieu
His name was Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, and he wrotepossibly the most influential book of the enlightenment, called Spirit of Laws (1748). In this he wrote of the Englishes seperation of powers among various branches of government providing for the possibility of checks and balances which did not exist at the time. In a later work, Persian Letters (17210, he criticized the religious zealotry and said that there needed to be a universal justice system.
#149- Diderot
The Encyclopedia was created by Denis Diderot and executed by the Republic of Letters. the first set featured articles from the briliant minds of the edge and was arranged in a scientific pattern.It was very wide-spread but some states banned it like Italy because it spoke against Catholic teachings. France also put censors on it because it spoke against monarchy.
#150- jean Jacques Rousseau
He believed in a democracy instead of a monarchy and that made many of the other scholars of the time hate him. His works weren't enjoyed during his time, but they inspired the French Revolution.In The Social Contradt, he said that the only way a person could be happy was if the community was happy for the community to be happy there had to be a democracy with general will. He wrote the novel Emile which helped set th stage for the romantic movement.
#151- Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant argued in his Critique of Pure Reason against the idea that all knowledge was empirical, since the mind shaped the world through it's unique experiences. he believed that we could find more knowledge by using more than reason.
#152- Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria, in his work: On Crime and Punishment, said that Italy needed a complete overhaul of their jurisprudence. He said that even if you do commit a crime then you still get certain rights.
#153- David Hume
In Scotland, David Hume argued that their was no direct evidence of miracles in his book: Inquiry Into Human Nature. .
#154- Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon reflected the interest in history in his book: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
#155- Adam Smith
Adam Smith argued that people should be able to freely pursue their economic dreams in his work, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
#156- Marquis (or Madame) de Pompadour
The woman helped the Philosophes get out of troubl with the authorities because of their high social status. Louis XV's wife, Marquise de Pompadour helped Diderot avoid censorhip of the encyclopedia.
#157- Mary Wallstonecraft
The first publicly open statement for women's rights came from Mary Wollstonecraft. She wrote, in her Vindication of the Rights of Women.
#158- Enlightened Absolutists (a.k.a despots)
Rulers such as Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria, Frederick II of Prussia are referred to as Enlightened Absolutes. They toyed with the ideas of the Philosophes because thee Philosophes believed in Monarchy. They meshed the ideas of the philosophes with their own ideas to enhance the power of their states.
#159- Frederick William (The Great Elector)
Frederick William was the first to tap into Prussia's great power. He wanted to build an army becasue of the borders around his country not havind natural protection. The nobles funded his army because he granted them control over the serfs. Frederick left his son, Frederick III, with a strong efficient army and possibly the best civil service in all of Europe.
#160- Frederick the Great
Frederick III decided to become King Frederick I. He was fascinated by the intellectuall flow from France and used these thoughts to better his Kingdom. He freed the serfs on the royal estates, but let the Junkers keep their serfs so as not to lose their help. He built a great intellectual center in his Palace of Sans Souci. he banned capital punishment on the serfs but didn't emancipate the Jews.
#161- Maria Theresa
In Austria, Maria Theresa, the empress, removed some of the hardships that had been placed on the serf population. During her reign, prussia gained some of the best lands from Austria.
#162- Pragmatic Sanction
The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, pushed the other European Countries to accept the Pragmatic Sanction, allowing for the assorted Hapsburg lands under his control to remain intact under one ruler and that ruler could be femal because he lacked a male heir.
#163- Diplomatic Revolution
Charles's daughter, Maria Theresa came to the throne and Prussia gained control of the richest part of Austira. Maria was only able to stay on the throne with the help of the Hungarian nobility. This war engaged much of Europe with Prussia, Spain and France on one side against many other countries. Maria Theresa brought about the Diplomatic Revolution to try and stop Frederick from being a threat by making a treaty with France, Russia and Sweden to have Austria's lands. This greatly affected Prussia's power. prussia, funded by Great Britain, defeated a French and Austrian army in the Seven Years War, but then was wiped out by a massive Russain army. Luckily, the Russain ruler liked Frederick, so Frederick stayed ruler of a smaller Prussia.
#164- Peter the Great
Peter the Great turned Russia to the Western way. He increases Russian revenue using western methods and became an absolutists. He built the great city of St. Petersburg in 1703 to increase the ties between Russia and Europe. Peter built a great organized army and a navy and began expanding his borders, most notably taking over Sweden in the Great Northern War.
#165- Catherine the Great
One of Peter's successors, Catherine the Great, continued Peter's Western outlook and made laws based on Philosophes writings.
#166- Robert Walpole (first "Prime Minister")
Great Britain moved from a monarchy to a parlaiment by the seventeenth century and they became the foundation for a solid government. Also the development of the office of Prime Minister became noticable. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robert Walpole, started to mold the political system to his advantage because Geroge I and George II were negligent of Political development.
#167- Reign of Louis XV
French absolutism was very weak and the Jansenists, who were similar to the Calvinists, were ordered to be banned by the papacy. Louis XV tried to put them down, but was blocked by various provincial parlements, or laws set sown by a group of nobles. Louis XV banned the parlements because they said that he couldn't reform the income for revenue after the Seven Years war.