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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 parts of conversation
focus and verbalize
3 general purposes
inform, entertain, persuade
4 kinds of delivery styles
memorized, improv, manuscript, extemporaneous
all in head, very difficult
no research before
reading exactly from script
notecard that you glace at occasionally
communication apprehension
3 parts of communication process/model
communication as action, interaction, transaction
communication as action
source to message to receiver through a channel
communication as interaction
source to message to receiver to message to source
interrupts message
internal noise
thoughts, headcold
external noise
lawn mower, car horn
environment where speech is made
what the receiver is doing verbally or non-verbally
communication as transaction
message travels from source to receiver over and over agains
beliefs about what is right or wrong
ways to speak ethically
sound goals/reasoning, sound evidence/reasoning, share evidence, be sensitive, be honest, avoid plagiarism, acknowlege all sources accurately
patching a speech with excerpts from 2 or more sources
incremental plagiarism
taking little increments from one speech, putting them together and not citing it
global plagiarism
taking entire speech from someone else and using it as your own
paraphrasing and not citing
specific purpose
concise statement indicating what you want your listeners to be able to do when you finish your speech
central idea
identifies the essence of your message
term used by ancient romans to describe the ability to develop or discover ideas that result in new insights or approaches to old problems
divisions of central idea
4 steps to the speechmaking process
select and narrow a topic, determine purpose, develop central idea, generate main ideas
5 ways to organize main ideas
chronologically, topically, spatially, by cause and effect, by problem and solution
principle of recency
event discussed last is most remembered
putting most important or convincing idea first
progressing from simple to most complex
arrange by location (walking through place or painting a picture)
cause & effect
identify situation first and result last, or vice versa
problem and solution
discuss problem first and solution last if audience knows more about problem, or vice versa
3 types of subdivisions
logical divisions, reasons why central idea is true, series of steps in chronological order
ways to organize supporting material
primacy, recency, complexity, specificity, soft to hard evidence
soft evidence
rests on opinion or inference
hard evidence
factual examples and statistics
words and gestures that allow you to move smoothly from one idea to the next, showing relationships between them
3 types of signposts
transitions, previews, summaries
verbal transitions
repeat key word, transitional phrases
nonverbal transitions
change in face, voice
statement of what is to come that is located in intro
restating 3 main ideas just before end of speech
write down all main ideas, subpoints, and support
use shapes and arrows to relate them
standard outline form
I, II, III > A, B, C > 1, 2, 3 > a, b, c
delivery outline
what you will need at presentation
5 things on what an informative speech can be about
objects, procedures, people, ideas, events
teaching adults
ways to enhance audience understanding
speak with clarity, use principles of adult learning, give info audience can use immediately, realte to audience experience, visual reinforcement, tell a story
ways to enhance audience recall
redundancy, pace info flow, reinforce key ideas verbally and nonverbally
4 ways of listening
pleasure, empathize, evaluate, information
5 steps to empathize
stop, look, listen, imagine, check
critical listening
listening to evaluate the info they are presenting
critical thinking
making judgements to the evidence
proven true by direct observation
conclusion based on partial info
proof, stats, facts that speaker uses to support conclusion
logic example
if person walks in with wet poncho and umbrella, you logically assume it's raining outside
not as clear cut as logic
looking at credentials of person and reasonably thinking if its true
what to do as audience member- smile, open body, forward lean, touch, eye contact, nod
murphy's law
what can go wrong, will go wrong
visuals aids should be neat, interesting, clear, effective
4 goals of introduction
grab attention, reveal topic, preview main points, credibility
ways of grabbing attention
tell a story, use stats or facts, quotes, humor, rhetorical questions, reference historical events
ways of showing credibility
using stats or facts, quoting, reference historical events, personal references
4 goals of conclusion
restate topic and main points, restate importance of topic, motivate audience, memorable
story or anecdote that provides examples of an idea
brief illustration
sentence or 2
extended illustration
longer, detailed, uses plot
hypothetical illustration
brief or extended, describes events that might happen
tells you what something is like, creates mental picture
statement that makes clear how something is done or why is exists in its present form or existed in its past form (how and why)
found in a dictionary, has authority
comparison that increases understanding
literal analogy
comparison between 2 similar things
figurative analogy
relies on imaginative insights
reliable sources are...
reputable, authoritative, unbiased
expert testimony
testimony of a recognized authority
lay testimony
opinion offered by a nonexpert who has firsthand experience
literary quotation
opinion by a write that is often expressed in a memorable or poetic way
best supporting material should have...
magnitude, proximity, concreteness, variety, humor, suitability