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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elements of The Communication Process
-Sender
-Receiver
-Encoding
-Decoding
-Message
-Channel
-Noise
Aristotle’s five canons of rhetoric
-Invention
-Arrangement
-Style
-Memory
-Delivery
Invention
Determining your topic/what you want to talk about
Arrangement
Guidelines for organizing speech: Introduction, Body/Main Points, and conclusion
Style
Use of Language
Memory
How to Remember What to Say When Speaking
Delivery
-Managing Voice, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expressions and Visual Aids.

-Extemporaneous Delivery
Public Speaking Anxiety
(PSA) The Fear Of Public Speaking
Preparation Anxiety
A form of public speaking anxiety that arises when a speaker begins to prepare for a speech. He may feel overwhelmed by the amount of time and planning necessary.
Performance Anxiety
Anxiety when giving a speech. It is worse during the introduction of a speech.
Suggestions for Managing Anxiety
Remember:
-Nervousness is normal (and often not noticeable!).
-Focus on topic.
-Prepare in advance.
-Practice, practice, practice!
Purpose Of Informative Speaking
An unbiased speech that expands listener’s knowledge with a demonstration, description, or explanation. The Speaker takes on the role of teacher to increase the Audience’s understanding or awareness of the topic
Organizational Patterns
-Chronological
-Topical
-Cause/Effect
-Spatial
Chronological Organization
Organizing based on time or series of events (past, present, future)
Topical Organization
Organize based on similar categories of information (background, hobbies, future plans...similar to chronological organization).
Cause/Effect Organization
Identify situation (cause) and the effects the situation has had.
Spatial Organization
Organize based on location and direction.
Transitions
A word, phrase, or passage, that links one subject or idea to another in speech, writing, and enables the speaker to move smoothly form one topic to another.
Internal Summary
Summary of what you just spoke about.
Internal Preview
Preview of what is coming up next.
Extemporaneous Delivery
A form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepares and practiced, is not written out or memorized.
General Purpose
To inform, entertain, or persuade the audience.
Specific Purpose
Statement on what you plan on accomplishing in your speech.
Thesis
Single declarative sentence that summarized your speech (state main points).
Outlining Rules
-Typed/Final draft form

-State the Specific purpose

-State the central idea

-Title the speech

-Label the intro, body, and conclusion

-Places central idea in the intro and the conclusion

-Uses a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation

-States all parts of outline in complete sentences

-Uses one sentence per point

-Label and write out transitions

-Cites sources in the outline

-Attach a bibliography
Introduction Elements
-First impression

-Grab the attention of the audience

-Introduce the topic

-Give the Audience a reason to listen

-Establish credibility and preview the main points
Conclusion Elements
-Summarize/restate your main points

-Motivate the audience to respond

-Provide closure
Plagiarism
The practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.
Global Plagiarism
Stealing a speech entirely form a single source and passing it off as one’s own.
Patchwork Plagiarism
Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one’s own.
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
-Keep good records
-Prepare in advance
-Cite expert knowledge
-Learn how to do citations (verbal, written, and bibliography)
Verbal Citations
Giving the source proper credit for the information stated verbally in speech (especially direct quotes).
Written Citations
Citing sources for information used in text of the speech outline.
Bibliography
A compilation of the sources listed in alphabetical order in MLA or APA format at the end of the outline.
Criteria for Evaluating Sources
-Authority
-Accuracy
-Objectivity
-Recency
Appropriate Source Information
-Books
-Scholarly Journal Articles
-Interviews
Inappropriate Source Information
-Sources that show extreme bias
-Search Engines (don't cite them)
-Dictionaries
-Wikipedia
-Some .com websites
Expert Testimony
Testimony from people who are recognized experts in their field.
Lay Testimony
Information that is derived from the firsthand experience of ordinary citizens.
Effective Delivery
-Natural Delivery like a normal conversation

-Confidence

-Use appropriate language for the audience, occasion, and subject matter

-Use voice to emphasize important points and show enthusiasm

-Movements, gestures, and facial expressions should all appear natural and spontaneous

-Use good eye contact and posture