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220 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brownian motion
Random movement of air molecules
A force that acts perpendicularly on a surface
Meters, Kilograms, Seconds

Metric system measurements of pressure
centimeters, grams, seconds

Metric system measurements of pressure
Used in the cgs system

It equals one dyne per square centimenter
Used in the MKS system

It equals one newton per square meter
one millionth of 1 Pa

Used for minute measurements in speech and hearing
positive pressure
pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure
negative pressure
pressure that is lower than atmospheric pressure
movement of air through a particular area in a certain interval of time

usually measured metrically in liters per second (l/s), l/min, ml/s or ml/min
volume velocity
the rate of flow (how fast the gas is flowing) in a certain direction
driving pressure
difference in air pressure that causes air to flow from higher to lower pressure
laminar flow
air that flows smoothly with molecules moving in a parallel manner and at the same speed
turbulent flow
when an obstacle disturbs the flow of air, resulting in little swirls of currents
there is a(n) __________ relationship between air volume and pressure
there is a(n) __________ relationship between air pressure and density
amount of space occupied in three dimensions
amount of mass per unit of volume
Boyle's Law
as the volume of an enclosed space increases, the pressure of the air within that space decreases (if temp. is constant)

as the volume of the space decreases, pressure of the air increases (with constant temp.)
ambient pressure
the relatively constant pressure that is around us at any particular place or time
the basic nature of sound consists of alternating increases and decreases in __________
ambient pressure
Hooke's Law
describes elasticity

the restoring force is proportional to the distance of displacement and acts in the opposite direction

-the further an object is displaced from its original position, the stronger the restoring force
-what is it
-what is it determined by
maximum distance away from rest position that the molecule is displaced

determined by the amount of energy involved in the movement
decrease of amplitude
wave front
outermost area of the wave that is traveling spherically through the air
periodic wave
every cycle takes the same amount of time to occur as every other cycle

perceptually, sounds like a musical tone
aperiodic wave
individual cycles do not take the same amount of time to occur

perceptually, sounds like noise
temperature plays a more important role in speed of sound in _______ than in _______ and _______
gases, liquids, solids
what are the 2 aspects of sound that are related to time?

incident wave
a sound wave that is generated, travels a certain distance and then hits up against a boundary
a sound lasts slightly longer because of interference

occurs when reflected sound waves extend the duration of an incident sound
simple harmonic motion
regular, smooth, back and forth movement

produces a pure tone sound wave
complex sound
-what is it
-what are the two types
a wave consisting of two or more frequencies

can be periodic or aperiodic
periodic complex sounds
made up of the fundamental frequency (lowest) and the harmonics
aperiodic complex sounds
frequencies are not systematically related to each other
two types of aperiodic complex sounds
continuous - able to be prolonged
(steam hissing from a radiator)

transient - extremely brief in duration (hitting your hand on a desk)
graph with frequency along the horizongal axis and amplitude along the vertical axis

can be a line spectrum or a continuous spectrum
line spectrum
displays the frequency content of periodic sounds
continuous spectrum
displays the frequency content of aperiodic sounds
What is evident with a line spectrum and what is not?
Frequency and amount of acoustic energy (amplitude) at each frequency are evident

Time is not evident
How do we represent complex aperiodic sounds?
we draw the envelope of the wave as a horizontal line that connects all the component frequencies in a sound (continuous spectrum)
What is evident on a continuous spectrum and what is not?
Amount of acoustic energy at each frequency is evident

Duration of the sound (if continuous or transient) is not evident
Why is it important to distinguish between a waveform and spectrum?
Because the info they provide is very different.

For example, a flat, horizontal line on a waveform depicts silence while a flat, horizontal line on a spectrum depicts an aperiodic complex sound
-perceptual counterpart
Rate at which an object vibrates

Measured in Hz

How we perceive a sound as high or low on a musical scale.

Measured in mels
What characteristics of an object determine frequency?
Length, mass and tension
What is the range of frequencies that humans are capable of perceiving?
20-20,000 Hz
Frequencies below 20 Hz

humans are incapable of hearing
Frequencies above 20,000 Hz

humans are incapable of hearing
What are the two divisions of the respiratory system?
the pulmonary system

the chest-wall system
Pulmonary System
lungs and airways
Chest-Wall System
rib cage, abdomen and diaphragm
What are the two divisions of the pulmonary system?
upper and lower respiratory system
Upper respiratory system
oral and nasal cavities
Lower respiratory system
Structures of the bronchial tree
-hollow tube
-11 cm long
-2.5 cm in diameter
-made up of 16-20 cartilaginous rings (open in back)
What lines the inside surface of the trachea?
epithelium with cilia
What is the function of the cilia in the trachea?
to act as a filtering system to clean the air going into the lungs
What are the two branches that extend downward off of the trachea called? What are the subsequent divisions?
mainstem bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
What happens in the alveoli?
Oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide
substance within each alveolus, which keeps the alveoli inflated by lowering the surface tension of the walls of the alveoli
Right lung
Slightly larger than left
3 lobes, separated by grooves
Left lung
Smaller than right to make room for the heart
2 lobes
Boundaries of the thoracic cavity
sternum and rib cage on the front and sides
spinal column and vertebrae in back
diaphragm on bottom
Where does the diaphragm attach?
along the lower margins of the rib cage and sternum and the vertebral column
What happens to the thoracic cavity when the diaphragm contracts?
The volume of the cavity is increased in a vertical direction
External intercostals
11 pairs that run between the ribs

when contracted, elevate the entire rib cage and increase the volume of the thoracic cavity in the front to back and lateral directions
Internal intercostals
11 pairs that run between the ribs

deep to the external intercostals

angled opposite to that of the external intercostals

Upon contraction, pull down on the entire rib cage, decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity
Abdominal muscles
4 muscles of the abdomen compress the contents of the abdominal cavity during exhalation

Pressure from the muscles is exerted upward on the diaphragm
visceral pleura
pulmonary pleura

lubricated membrane lining each lung
parietal pleura
costal pleura

lubricated membrane lining the inner surface of the thorax
pleural space
very small potential space between the two pleurae, containing a liquid
What is the name of the liquid in the pleural space?
pleural fluid
The pressure between the visceral pleura and parietal pleura is always _______.
pleural linkage
negative pressure in the pleural space keeps the lungs and thorax connected
What are the 3 functions of the pleurae?
pleural linkage

provide a smooth, friction free surface for the lungs and thorax to move against each other

protection against both lungs collapsing at the same time
What causes differences in breathing between children and adults?
Maturation of the structures and functions involved in respiration

Structures grow larger and change in shape
How are respiratory volumes and capacities measured?
with a wet or dry spirometer
Lung volumes
Single, nonoverlapping values

refers to the amount of air in the lungs at a given time and how much of that air is used for various purposes, including speech
Lung capacities
include two or more lung volumes
How are the measurements of lung volumes and capacities expressed?
cubic centimeters (cc or cm^3)

liters (l)

milliliters (ml)
Resting Expiratory Level
refers to the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system (a level not a volume or capacity)

35-40% of VC

natural tendency of the lungs to collapse is balanced by the natural tendency of the thorax to expand

the endpoint of a normal quiet exhalation (also called the end-expiratory level)
What are the lung volumes?
tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume
Tidal Volume
Volume of air that we breathe in OR out during a cycle of respiration

Varies depending on age, build and degree of physical activity
Inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be inhaled above the TV
Expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be exhaled below TV (after quiet exhalation)
Residual volume
-What is it?
-Is it greater in infants or adults?
Amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation

Much less in infants than adults
Dead air
Small amount of volume of air in the lungs and airways

Last to be inhaled and first to be exhaled
Types of lung capacities
vital capacity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity
Vital Capacity
Maximum amount of air that a person can exhale (forced) after having inhaled as deeply as possible

Represents the total amount of air available for all purposes, including speech

Combination of TV, IRV and ERV
Functional Residual Capacity
Amount of air remaining in the lungs and airways at the REL

Combines ERV and RV
Total Lung Capacity
Total amount of air that the lungs are capable of holding

Combines TV, IRV, ERV and RV
Development of lung volumes and capacities
Increase from infancy through puberty

Adult values apparent by age 16

Values stay stable until the later adult years

Volumes and capacities start to decrease with advancing age
How much air can we inhale above REL?
60-65 %
What are the considerations of breathing for life and breathing for speech?
Breathing for life: usually an unconscious, automatic process; amount of air taken in varies with the needs of our bodies at the time

Breathing for speech: more complicated because it needs to be linguistically appropriate (at appropriate times, enough air to produce the full utterance) and have prosodic considerations
What are the biological differences between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Location of air intake (life: through the nose, speech: throught the mouth)

Ratio of time for inhalation vs. exhalation (life: almost equal, speech: inhalation time = 10% of cycle)

Volume of air inhaled per cycle (speech: more and differs depending on length of utterance)

Muscle activity for exhalation (life: passive, speech: active)
What are the 4 forces that contribute to a decrease in volume in the thoracic cavity? Describe them.
Gravity: pulls down on the rib cage

Muscles: relax and allow the rib cage to return to its original position

Elasticity: of the respiratory tissues and lungs

Torque: during inhalation, cartilaginous portions of the ribs twist
The more the thoracic cavity is enlarged during inspiration, the _______ the recoil forces.
Relaxation pressures
Air pressures generated by the recoil forces (due to passive forces alone)

Varies throughout the lung volumes
What are the 4 respiratory features that are important for speech production?



chest wall shape
State and describe the two functions of respiration
For life: gaseous exchange in the alveoli

For speech: exhaled air stream supplies power for speech sound generation
Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Air moving in and out of the system
Skeletal framework and muscular tissues that house important structures of respiration

Divided into upper and lower cavities
upper cavity

contains the lungs and respiratory passageways (respiratory system)
lower cavity

contains much of the digestive system
Chest wall system
rib cage, abdomen, diaphragm
outside the thorax
pleural cavity
cavity formed by the thoracic cage

consists of 2 layers
double walled sac
visceral and parietal pleurae
What is the negative pressure in the pleural cavity?
5 mm mercury
The surface tension pressure between the two pleurae is always _____ than alveolar pressure
Upper airways
oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx
airway valve
lower airways
air passageways below the larynx (trachea, bronchi, alveoli)
Normally the lungs and thorax act as a _______.
If removed from the thorax, the lungs would _________.
relax and decrease in size
If separated from the lungs, the thorax would _________.
expand to greater volume
When linked together, the lungs are __________ and the thorax is __________.
somewhat expanded

somewhat compressed
Relationship between lungs and thorax at REL
Force of lungs to collapse is opposed by equal and opposite force of thorax to expand
What are the inhalatory muscles? How do they impact the size of the thorax?
Diaphragm: increases the thorax in the vertical dimension

External intercostals: increase the thorax in lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions
What are the exhalatory muscles? How do they impact the size of the thorax?
Abdominal muscles: pushes up into the thoracic cavity and pushes the diaphragm up, decreasing the size of the thorax in a vertical dimension

Internal intercostals: decrease the thorax in lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions
aerodynamic events
describe how air is moved through the system
How can alveolar pressure be measured?
by measuring the pressure during the production of the phoneme /p/ with a small tube placed behind the teeth
Boyle's Law
PV = K

There is an inverse relationship between pressure and volume
"active force"
contracting muscles
Pressure gradient
Air flows from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure

A unidirectional phenomenon
What aerodynamic events need to happen for inspiration?
Make the pressure gradient in favor of air flowing inward
What are the active and passive forces in inspiration?
Active forces: Contract inhalatory muscles

Passive forces: Gravity (if upright), elastic recoil and torque of ribcage at low lung volume (especially when below REL)
What aerodynamic events need to take place for expiration?
Make pressure gradient in favor of air flowing outward by making the volume smaller
What are the active and passive forces in expiration?
Active forces: contract the respiratory muscles (abdominals, internal intercostals)

Passive forces: nonmuscular forces: torque of ribcage, gravity, elastic recoil of lung fibers and recoil force of surface tension in the alveoli
What are the pressures necessary for speech and where are they?
Alveolar pressure - inside the lungs

Subglottal pressure/Tracheal pressure - below the vocal folds

Oral pressure - inside the mouth
device used to show pressure changes in terms of cm H2O
How can tracheal and alveolar pressures be measured directly?
By inserting a needle into the trachea
Besides inserting a needle into the trachea, how can we measure tracheal pressure?
Indirectly, by measuring oral pressure

These measurements are almost identical
How is oral pressure measured?
By placing a tube behind the lips and measuring pressure during the closure portion of a stop consonant (usually /p/)
Air flow
A measure of a volume of air moving in a certain direction at a particular location per unit time.
What determines air flow?
It is strongly related to the larynx and the articulators.

Modified by various resistances to the flow of air
What device is used to measure airflow?
a pneumotachograph - a mask that fits over the face

nose and mouth airflow can also be measured separately using a divided face mask
Lung volume
amount of air in the lungs

measured in l, ml, cc or %VC
Respiratory kinematic analysis
-what is it?
-how is it measured?
In speaking situations, lung volumes are estimated from rib cage and abdominal movement

measured using a plethysmograph or with linearized magnetometers
During breathing for speech, the abdomen is ________ and the rib cage is ________ than in their respective relaxation positions.

What influences prephonatory chest wall movements?
The length of the upcoming utterance

The person's lung volume when speech is initiated
Where is speech produced in respect to VC?
In the midrange
How does the type of phoneme being said influence respiration?
Voiceless stops and fricatives need a high flow, while voiced stops and fricatives need a lower flow
How does speech breathing change throughout the lifespan?
Children's VC is lower

Children use more effort and are less efficient in producing speech (depending on speech fluency)

Older adults typically have less recoil pressure as well as decreased VC, ERV and IRV and increased RV
Does positive pressure indicate inhalation or exhalation?
Does negative pressure indicate inhalation or exhalation?
What are examples of positive active forces?
active work done by the internal intercostals and abdominals
What are examples of active negative forces?
active work done by the diaphragm and external intercostals
What are examples of passive positive forces?
nonmuscular forces such as torque, gravity and elastic recoil
What are examples of passive negative forces?
nonmuscular forces such as gravity (if upright), torque and elastic recoil
Where would you have a very strong passive positive force?
If you inhale to very high lung volume, the ribcage is stretched and wants to snap back to original position
What are some medical and clinical conditions that affect speech breathing?
Parkinson's Disease
Cerebellar Disease
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Cerebral Palsy
Mechanical Ventilation
Voice Disorders
Hearing Impairment
Parkinson's Disease
Rigidity of muscles that restricts range of movement

Chest wall shape often different, more displacement in abdomen than normal

May show reduced VC
Typical speech patterns in people with Parkinson's Disease
Monotonous speech, distorted articulation, breathy, weak voice (intensity affected)
Treatment strategies for people with Parkinson's Disease
Based on patient's breathing physiology

(e.g. teaching to speak in short phrases, activities to increase tracheal pressure)

Specific strategies: breathing in and out as much and as forcefully as possible, sustaining voiceless sounds, taking deep breaths frequently, speaking at beginning of exhalation, sustaining vowels
Cerebellar Disease
Movements become jerky and uncoordinated

Voice may fluctuate unpredictably in pitch and loudness

Reduced VC
Typical speech patterns in people with Cerebellar Disease
Inability to make fine adjustments to frequency and intensity necessary for stress and emphasis

Speech is slow, almost robotic

Utterances may be initiated below normal starting lung levels
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
May cause weakness or paralysis

Much smaller than normal VC, IC and ERV

Resting TV and breathing rate may be normal
Typical speech patterns of people with cervical spinal cord injury
Reduced loudness, imprecise consonant production, abnormally short breath groups and slow inspirations

May have larger abdominal volumes
Treatment for people with cervical spinal cord injury
Teach to take in larger amounts of air to help increase voice loudness
Cerebral Palsy
Spastic: structures are hypertonic and weak - inhalations are shallow and expirations are forced and uncontrolled

Athetoid: involuntary movements - uncontrolled breathing with involuntary bursts of air during inhalation and/or exhalation

Ataxic: coordination is lacking - irregular rate, rhythm and depth of breathing
What is affected in children and adults with CP?
All parameters of respiratory function (pressure, flow, volume and chest-wall shape)

Weak muscles cause difficulty in using respiratory muscles

Air stream may be valved inefficiently

Chest wall deformities
Treatment for people with CP
Strengthening respiratory muscles

Posture supports (positioning, abdominal trussing)
Mechanical Ventilation
Ventilator tube (cannula) is attached through a stoma in the neck, leading to the trachea

Some may still be able to speak but may have difficulties
Treatment for patients with mechanical ventilation
Encouraging a patient to keep speaking as far into the expiratory portion of the cycle as possible
Voice Disorders
Systems involved in speech are closely intertwined

Tensions in one system affect the other systems
Techniques for people with voice disorders
Pushing technique: work on closing vocal folds more strongly

Yawn-sigh technique: For people who close their vocal folds too tightly
Hyperfunctional Voice Disorders
Associated with shallow breathing, poor coordination of expiration and phonation, clavicular breathing pattern, disrupted inspiratory and expiratory cycles of TV breathing
Hearing Impairment
People who are deaf or hard of hearing seem to have trouble controlling the airstream for speech

Respiratory system itself is not deviant but coordinating is difficult
How much sublottal pressure do we need for speech?
A constant respiratory driving pressure of 5-10 cm H20 is needed for normal loudness levels
What determines the relaxation pressure at any lung volume?
The combined passive forces of the lungs and chest wall
What happens at high lung volumes (above 55% of VC)?
Both lungs and chest wall want to recoil to a smaller size

There is a high positive alveolar pressure
What is considered high lung volume?
Above 55% of VC
What happens at 38% of vital capacity?
The forces to expand and to contract are opposite and equal to each other.
What is the alveolar pressure due to passive forces alone at 38% of VC?

What is this known as?

This is also known as REL
At lung volumes above 38% of VC, relaxation pressure is _________. Passive forces are ___________. Air flows _________.


Exhalation is always ________ pressure
At lung volumes below 38% of VC, relaxation pressure is _________. The passive forces are _________ and air flows __________.


At lung volumes above 38% of VC, inhalation requires _________.
active (muscular) forces
At lung volumes below 38% of VC, exhalation requires _________.
active (muscular) forces
Inhalation is always _________ pressure.
Breathing for speech and song requires use of _______ to _______
active muscular forces

add to or subtract from the forces (and pressures) at different lung volumes
What causes the sounds during speech (with regards to air flow)?
Kinetic energy from exhaled air stream becomes acoustic energy because of disturbances in the surrounding air
What percentage of our vital capacity do we inhale to during conversational speech?
Up to 60%
What percent of vital capacity is REL?
How much of our vital capacity do we use during normal speech?
How much of our vital capacity do we use for loud speech?
We inhale to what percentage of our vital capacity for loud speech?
Why do we inhale to larger lung volumes for louder speech?
To take advantage of positive relaxation pressure at high lung volumes.
Why do we need to achieve pulsatile variations in respiratory driving pressure during connected speech?
To make prosodic adjustments, especially for stress
How do we achieve pulsatile variations in respiratory driving pressure during connected speech? What about at high lung volumes?
Contraction of internal intercostals

At high lung volumes, the external intercostals momentarily reduce checking action to increase respiratory driving pressure
What is different for breathing in trained singers?
They tend to use nearly all of their VC while singing so they need to learn and focus on optimal breathing techniques
What are the differences between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Location of air intake

Ratio of time for inhalation versus exhalation

Volume of air inhaled per cycle

Muscle activity for exhalation
What is different regarding location of air intake between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Speech: We breathe through the mouth - it is more efficient and we can get more air, faster

Life: We tend to breathe more through the nose - cilia and mucous membrane cleans, filters, warms and moistens the air
What is different regarding ratio of time for inhalation vs. exhalation between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Life: 40% inhalation vs. 60% exhalation

Speech: 10% inhalation vs. 90% exhalation
What is different regarding volume of air inhaled per cycle between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Life: 500 cc - inhale up to 50% - use 10% of VC

Speech: inhale up to 60% VC - use 20-25% of VC
What is different regarding muscle activity for exhalation between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Life: exhalation is due to passive forces alone

Speech: Contract inhalatory and exhalatory muscles during exhalation
Diaphragmatic tuning
When getting ready for speech, the abdomen is smaller and the rib cage is larger than in relaxation

Exhalatory muscles are contracted a little
What happens to the abdominal wall during speech breathing?
It moves in and pushes up on the diaphragm, expanding the lower rib cage and allowing the diaphragm to make quick, strong contractions
How is abdominal movement measured?
Using Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography (RIP) or a magnetometer
What are some factors that influence speech breathing patterns?
- Length of the utterance
- Speaking task complexity
- Clause Boundaries
- Loudness of the intended utterance
- Type of phoneme
- Whispering
How do linguistic considerations influence speech breathing patterns?
We control the amount of air inhaled, timing and rate of exhalation based on length of the utterance, clause boundaries and stress patterns
How does speaking task complexity influence speech breathing patterns?
When the task is more complex we tend to use more air per syllable (due to slower speech) so we have fewer syllables per breath
How do clause boundaries influence speech breathing patterns?
The places we choose to pause and take a breath is usually determined by location of the clause boundaries. For example, we do not inhale in the middle of a clause.
How does the loudness of the intended utterance influence speech breathing patterns?
In order to speak more loudly, we need to allow more air to flow out per syllable. We must inhale faster and to larger lung volumes to take advantage of a higher positive relaxation pressure.
How does the type of phoneme influence speech breathing patterns?
We use more air on voiceless stops and fricatives than on voiced stops and fricatives.
How does whispering influence speech breathing patterns?
We use less lung volume than for voiced speech

We tend to terminate speech at lower lung volumes (often below REL)

We use more air flow per syllable, which means we have fewer syllables per breath

We have a lower subglottal pressure
What changes in speech breathing happen when we age?
Declination of surface area of alveoli

Lung size decreases

Ossification/Calcification of ribs

Vertical dimensions of thoracic cavity become smaller

Force and rate of muscle contractions change (meaning slower movements)

Less blood volume
What is a spirometer?
A way to measure and record lung volumes and capacities.
What is the difference between a Vital Capacity Maneuver and a Forced Vital Capacity Maneuver?
The speed of exhalation.

VC - exhale as fully as possible
FVC - exhale as quickly and fully as possible
Flow Volume Loop
Shows the relationship between rate of airflow and lung volume for inspiration and expiration

Curve represents exhalatory and inhalatory airflow during FVC

Should be fairly symmetrical
-What does it do?
-What measurements does it give us?
Used to check for sufficient driving pressure

Gives us pressure measurements and estimates of pressure during speech
Used to check pressure of airflow during speech
Kinematic analysis using a plethysmograph or magnetometers
Allows us to look at how the structures are moving (e.g. the chest wall) during speech

-With appropriate attachments, can also measure lip mandible movement
Typical speech breathing patterns of children (in relation to young adults)
- Spend more speaking time below REL
- Use more airflow per syllable
- Inhale up to 65% of VC
- On average, talk down to 30% of VC (use 35% of VC for speech)
- Use more effort and are less efficient speakers
- Insert more fillers and talk at a slower rate
Typical speech breathing patterns of elderly people (in relation to young adults)
Most changes are associated with the changing structures due to aging

- Don't start talking until later in exhalation, so they may run out of air in the middle and they lose the ability to use relaxation pressure
- Need to take in breaths more frequently
- Inhale to a slightly higher lung volume
- Slower speech
- More air flow during speech (per syllable)
- Loudness may be reduced
Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography

A way to monitor respiratory activity without physical connection to the airway

2 coils enclosed in bands and are worn around the rib cage and the abdomen

Estimates lung volume