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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is considered the father of sociology and coined the term sociology?
Auguste Comte
The sociological imagination according to C wright Mills refers to?
The relationship between individual experiences and the larger society that shape our behavior
What are the major components of the scientific method?
observation, experimentation, generalization and verification
Which early sociologist is associated with social darwinism?
Herbert Spencer
The theoretical perspective that views society as a system of highly interrelated structures or parts that function or operate together harmoniously is known as?
Manifest functions are those which are?
intended consequences of a social process
A model or framework that is a guide for research questions is a
Viewing society as constantly changing in response to social inequality is the central idea of what theoretical perspective?
The interactionist perspective focuses on
how people make sense of the world in which they participate
Theories that explain specific issues or aspects of society are called
middle range theories
Which american sociologist portrayed society as a stable system of well-ordered, interrelated parts
Talcott Parsons
A theorist that developed the symbolic interactionist perspective is
George Herbert Mead
Empiricism relies on
observable phenomenon
A theorist who showed that religion could be a belief system that contributed to the creation of economic conditions and institutions was
Max Weber
The major focus of the field of psychology is
individual motivation and mental processes
The main focus or unit of analysis for sociologists is
Both sociologists and psychologists are interested in alcoholism, however in investigating alcoholism a sociologist would be most interested in
the patterns of alcohol consumption among individuals and social groups
This sociologist published Theory and practice of society in america which was based on traveling through the 19th century U.S. conducting analyses of day-to-day life customs and lifestyles
Harriet Martineau
Compared to journalists, sociologists:
are able to explore a topic in depth
According to "Too smart to marry?" what is true in todays society?
women who graduate from college are more likely to get married than women who are high school dropouts
The social sciences consiste of those disciplines that apply what to the study of human behavior?
scientific method
The seven disciplines which are cumulatively known as the social sciences are:
Cultural anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social work and sociology
The scope of analysis for functionalism and conflict theory is:
for interactionism it is:
Sociology is defined as:
the scientific study of human social interactions
A body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws is known as
The sociological imagination involves
looking at all types of human behavior and discerning unseen connections among them
most people who go into sociology will become:
According to the big ten suicide study who has the lower rate of suicide?
college students
The japanese kamikaze pilots of world war 2 would be an example of what?
altruistic suicide
During the early years of sociology in the U.S. most of the field's development took place where?
the University of Chicago
Sociology first emerged as a discipline during which historical period?
English industrial revolution
The first step in the research process is to:
define the problem
A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is:
a hypothesis
An independant variable is one that
causes or changes another variable
Which of the followin is a research method in which a population or sample is questioned in order to reveal specific facts about itself
A random sample is one in which
each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
When a study actually tests what it intended to test, it demonstrates:
The study is said to demonstrate reliability when
the findings of the study are repeatable
the tendency for researchers to select data that will support their hypotheses is known as
researcher bias
An open ended interview is also known as
a semi structured interview
in which research method does the researcher attempt to get to know all the members of the group being studied to whatever degree possible?
participant observation
The process of making use of data that has already been collected is known as
secondary analysis
when a representative sample is not achieved, this is called
a sampling error
A blind investigator is one who
does not know if the subjecy is a member of the group or a comparison group
The number that is commonly referred to as the average is the
The number that falls at the midpoint is the
What are the goals of science?
to propose and test theories that help us understand things and events and to describe in detail particular things or events
the famous research study that involved using a fake machine to make people think they were giving electrical shocks to a person in the next room was:
Milgrams obediance to authority
"Students who study more hours for a test will make higher grades." In this hypothesis, the dependant variable is:
A researcher who joins alcoholics anonymous for the purpose of doing an in depth study of the members would be using
participant observation
The part of a statistical table which indicates the subject/focus of the data is
the title
An empirical question can be answered by
observing and analyzing the world as it is known
longitudinal research investigates
a population over a period of time
The research method in which the variables being studied are controlled and the researcher obtains results through precise observations and measurements is known as an
The particular subset of a population chosen for the study is referred to as the
A stratified random sample is a method used to
prevent certain groups from being under- or overrepresented in a sample
Normally the research procedure one selects for an investigation is
designed specifically for that particular research problem
Magazine samples do not tend to produce
representative samples
The mode is
the number that occurs most often in tha data
sociologists today feel that the value free sociology promoted by max weber is
not possible
a statement of association says
that something brings about, influences or changes something else
Most social scientists regard deception as
a practice that should be avoided when conducting scientific research
After the problem is defined the next step in the research process is to
review previous research
Social research usually does not directly benefit
the research subject
A structured interview is
a form of research in which the questionnaire is followed rigidly
culture is
shared and transmitted from one generation to the next
When an individual has difficulty adjusting to a new culture, he or she is experiencing
culture shock
The term ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to
judge others according to your own customs and values
Studying cultures on their own terms in order to make valid comparisons is
cultural relativism
The shelters we live in and the clothes we wear to protect us from the cold would be examples of
material culture
Those norms that permit a wide degree of individual interpretation, such as good manners or ways of dressing are
Murder, incest and child beating would all be examples of violations of
Norms that define our expectations of a perfect world are
ideal norms
Values are best described as
a cultures definitions of right and wrong and good and bad
The phenomenon through which new patterns of behavior emerge even though it may conflict with the traditional values is known as
cultural lag
a set of distinctive values, norms, and beliefs that belong to a certain segment of the population is
a subculture
A rite of passage is
a standardized ritual marking a major life transition
An immigrant group that has maintained their identity and traditions is an
ethnic subculture
a pattern that has developed in all populations and cultures is a
cultural universal
There is a culture which has no word for "time" folloring the Sapir-whorf hypothesis this culture
has a different perception of the reality since time is not an important concept
In the Southern United states, the murder rates for friends and acquaintances are higher than in the northern united states. Nisbet and Cohen suggest the reason for this trend is because these murders stem from
a need to protect one's honor
The presence of McDonald's in other countries such as Saudi Arabia and india is an example of
In e-mails, people will often use characters like :-) or :-( to express their emotions, these are examples of
When anthropologist Kenneth Good was studying the Yanomama, he observed a tug of war over a woman that eventually resulted in her gang rape, an event common to this culture. Good was appalled and disturbed by what he observed, his reaction could be described as
culture shock
The transformation of black folk blues into commercial music such as rhythm and blues would be an example of
everything humans learn, use, produce, know and believe as they mature and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong is known as
The totality of knowledge, beliefs,values and rules for appropriate behavior is
nonmaterial culture
A society's agreed upon rules of behavior that are shared within a culture and that prescribes the limits of acceptable behavior are called
Norms that permit allowances for personal differences in individual behavior are called
real norms
Symbols represent
something other than what they appear to be and they carry a particular meaning recognized by members of a particular culture
Technological change often results in
cultural lag
Very little human behavior is
instinctual or biologically programmed
The process of learning the skills needed to function as a member of society is
The sociologist best known for his work in the area of sociobiology is
Edward O. Wilson
Our own distinctive patterns of behavior and ways of thinking and feeling are our
Attachment disorder occurs when
individuals are unable to trust and form relationships
In today's society, most children are cared for by
a relative
The stage at which a child relies on touch and manipulation of objects for information is the
sensoroimotor stage
What are the views of Cooley and Mead in relation to development?
The individual and society act as partners, with social forces shaping the individual
Peers have the greatest amount of influence on
lifestyle issues
The looking glass self describes
the process through which we developa sense of self
According to Freud the part of the personality consisting of the drives and instincts is the
According to Mead, the stage in the development of the self where we learn the expectations, positions and rules of society at large is the
game stage
According to Erik Erikson, human development is
a lifelong process
According to Erikson the conflict to be resolved during adolescence is
identity vs role confusion
George Herbert Mead used the term significant others to describe
those who are most important in our development
Daniel Levinson's theory of development blends sociology and psychology in a theory of development that focuses on
Primary socialization includes:
Learning a language and thinking logically, acceptance of the basic norms and values of the culture, assuming culturally appropriate social identity
Blue-collar parents tend to socialize their children to
be obediant to authority
Tischler states the most important socializing function of school is
providing children with a preview of what the adult world will be like
An example of a total institution is
a prison
One study concluded that by the time most people reach the age of 18 they have spent more time doing what than anything else?
watching television
The total of all statuses that define an individual is
social identity
According to Mead, the me is
the portion of the self that is made up of those things learned through the socialization process
Freud's part of the self that represents society's norms and moral values is the
A large scale means of transmitting information through audible, visual and electronic channels to an audience conditioned to recieve passively whatever is brought to them is known as
mass media
Exposure to ideas or values that in one way or another conflict with what was learned in childhood is called
In cooley's view, the self is viewed
entirely as a social product
While aging involves biological processes, in most societies, becoming old is represented by
major social and cultural processes as well
Recent studies have demonstrated that children who watch more television have a tendency to be
more aggressive
Adult socialization may be more deliberate than
primary socialization
Three forms of social interaction
exchange, cooperation and conflict
The study of the rules people use in their intimate behavior to respond to behavior and to modify behavior is known as
Dramaturgy is the study of
the roles people play to create an impression
According to Hall, what are the parts of the context of social interaction?
The physical setting, the social environment, and the activities surrounding the interaction
When people get together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals it is known as:
An example of an achieved status is
role conflict is likely to occur when an individual
has a number of statuses that have different goals
Family position, gender and racial identity are examples of
ascribed statuses
Putnam suggests that the main reason for the decrease in social interaction among americans is
people are spending more time watching television
A master status
dominates a person's life
A vice president for programming's behaviors will chang according to whom she interacts with during her job, such as the network president, directors, writers producers and so forth. These behaviors would be a pert of her:
role set
A mother is torn between going to her son's soccor game or attending her daughter's ballet recital. This would be an example of:
role strain
The most basic social institution is
the family
An educational system open to all is a hallmark of
Social organization
consists of patterns of social relationships among individuals and groups, is based on a system of social norms, roles and statuses, has many shared meanings which provide regularity and predictability
What did Samovar, Porter and Jain report concerning the practice of eye contact in the United States?
We tend to feel discomfort if someone gazes at us for longer than ten seconds
Stanley is interested in examining how nonverbal behavior, such as slight nods, yawns, and postural shifts, influence social interaction. He is using the study of
Sara agrees to take sociolgy notes for Todd. In return, Todd agrees to help Sara with her statistics homework. This social interaction is an example of
an exchange
The primary difference between conflict and competition is that
competition is regulated by agreed upon rules
When Ralph became manager of the insurance office where he works, he wasn't very confident of his leadership abilities, but he acted like he was in charge and sure of what he was doing. Over time, Ralph was able to become confident in his new role. Ralph's behavior is an example of
role conflict
roles are
culturally defined rules for proper behavior that are associated with every status
Social action is
anything people are conscious of doing because of other people
Social interaction involves
two or more people taking one another into account
Social institutions are the
ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses and roles that organize those activities to fulfill society's fundamental needs
A society is a
grouping of people who share the same territory and participate is a common culture
Coercion is a form of conflict in which
one of the parties is much stronger than the other and can impose its will on the weaker party
According to Blau, what is the most basic form of social interaction?
The main components of social organization are
statuses and roles
what is universal among humans
socially defined postitions are known as
Conflict and wars are more characteristic among what type of society
An example of a social group would be
a baseball team
Characteristics of social groups include
shared goals and purposes, means for controlling member's behavior and means for identifying mambers
An instrumental leader is one who
plans the tasks of the group to accomplish its goals
the smallest possible group is known as a
Uniforms, School ties, and skin color all serve what function of groups
defining group boundaries
An example of the informal structure of associations would be
bending rules and taking procedural shortcuts
Gemeinshaft society is characterized by
the good of the group over the good of the individual
What technological innovation has caused controversy among the amish?
the telephone
A mechanically integrated society is characterized by
common goals and values among the members
Which sociologist was responsible for the first study of bureaucracies?
Max Weber
Characteristics of bureaucracies include
hierarchical powers and responsibilities, impartiality, clear cut division of labor
Under the iron rule of oligarchy, organizations eventually
become dominated by a self serving group of people who have achieved positions of power
Strangers waiting in line to check out at a department store would be called a
social aggregate
What is true about reference groups?
people may not be a memeber of the group they are using as a reference group
Twenty people are invited to a dinner party. As the evening goes on, they eventually break into smaller groups to be able to have conversation more easily, these smaller groups represent
Im his friendship group, Tim is considered the dominant member and exerts a lot of influence over the other members of the group. He would be identified as the
Asch's experiment was an illustration of how groups
control member's behavior
The development of an oligarchy could be avoided by
the active participation of the rank and file in the organization, open lines of communication, and shared decision making
authority and decision making in bureaucracies usually are
A number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms would be called a
social group
People temporarily in physical proximity to one another, but who share little else would be called a
social aggregate
A secondary group is
a group that has relatively little intimacy, has specific goals, is formally organized and is impersonal
An expressive leader works to
keep relations among group members harmonious and to keep group morale high
An organization dominated by a small self serving, self perpetuation group people in positions of power and responsibility is an
New members are more threatening to what type of groups?
small groups
Our memories of events may be shaped by
the biases we may hold
Gesellschaft relationships are
impersonal and independant
Reference groups provide us with guidelines for
behavior, values and attitudes