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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sociological imagination
the ability to see societal patterns that influence the individual as well as groups of individuals
troubles
are privately felt problems that spring from events or feelings in one individual's life
issues
affect large # of people and have their origins in the institutional arrangement & history of a society
social structure
which is defined as the organizational pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society
debunking
looking behind the facades of everyday life. behind the scenes of normal patterns
social institutions
established and organized system of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose. ex: family, government, marriage, economy...
diversity
group differences, factors within societal issues.

ex: race, gender, class, age
Auguste Comte
-first sociology theorist
-believed positivism over everything else
-believed sociology could discover the laws of human social behavior.
positivism
system of thought in which scientific observation & description is considered the highest form of knowledge
Alexis de Tocqueville
thought that democratic and egalitarian values in the US influenced American social institutions for the better and transformed personal relationships

society as a whole & how it shaped the individual.
majority = little independence
Harriet Martineau
-fascinated by the newly emerging culture in America
-also wrote the first sociology methods book...how to observe behavior when one is a participant in the situation being studied
Emile Durkhein
-public rituals have a special purpose in society, creating social solidarity
-what forces hold society together & make it stable
-people are glued together by belief system = reinforces the sense of belonging

society is an organism. each part has to function to keep it alive.
Karl Marx
How capitalism shaped society

social revolution:
Fuedal
---REV
capitalism
---REV
communism
UTOPIA

profit-production-property

different classes: capitalists(bourgeois)
proletariat(working)
petty bourgeoisie (managers)
lumpenproletariat(homeless)
Max Weber
Society had 3 basic dimensions:
-political
-economic
-cultural

multi.dimensional society
verstehen
understanding of social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.

Weber didnt believe sociologists had to be born into a group to understand it. "It takes one to know one." Not true in his case.
sociological imagination
the ability to see societal patterns that influence the individual as well as groups of individuals
troubles
are privately felt problems that spring from events or feelings in one individual's life
issues
affect large # of people and have their origins in the institutional arrangement & history of a society
social structure
which is defined as the organizational pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society
debunking
looking behind the facades of everyday life. behind the scenes of normal patterns
social institutions
established and organized system of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose. ex: family, government, marriage, economy...
diversity
group differences, factors within societal issues.

ex: race, gender, class, age
Auguste Comte
-first sociology theorist
-believed positivism over everything else
-believed sociology could discover the laws of human social behavior.
positivism
system of thought in which scientific observation & description is considered the highest form of knowledge
Alexis de Tocqueville
thought that democratic and egalitarian values in the US influenced American social institutions for the better and transformed personal relationships

society as a whole & how it shaped the individual.
majority = little independence
Harriet Martineau
-fascinated by the newly emerging culture in America
-also wrote the first sociology methods book...how to observe behavior when one is a participant in the situation being studied
Emile Durkhein
-public rituals have a special purpose in society, creating social solidarity
-what forces hold society together & make it stable
-people are glued together by belief system = reinforces the sense of belonging

society is an organism. each part has to function to keep it alive.
Karl Marx
How capitalism shaped society

social revolution:
Fuedal
---REV
capitalism
---REV
communism
UTOPIA

profit-production-property

different classes: capitalists(bourgeois)
proletariat(working)
petty bourgeoisie (managers)
lumpenproletariat(homeless)
Max Weber
Society had 3 basic dimensions:
-political
-economic
-cultural

multi.dimensional society
verstehen
understanding of social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.

Weber didnt believe sociologists had to be born into a group to understand it. "It takes one to know one." Not true in his case.
social darwinism
survival of the fittest

simple --> complex [wealth]

hands off pproach to social change - laissez-faire
Charles Horton Cooley
Chicago School

society molds the individual
looking glass self

I am who I am bc of what you guys think of me.
George Herbert Mead
Individual & society as independent.

Indiv. developed through the relationship they establish with others.

society exists bc it is perceived in the minds of people
Robert Park
urbanism & racial/ethnic relationships

concentric circles...can see lower classes
Jane Adams
leader in settlement house movement.

research to hep the lives who lived in the slums
W.E.B. Du Bois
African American - Harvard

NAACP

Study sociology with scientific method
Marcosociology
strive to understand society as a whole

durkheim, marx, weber
Microsociology
face-to-face social interaction

Chicago school - research that studies indiv. and groups
functionalism
(durkheim)
each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole.

social stability & shared values change, disorganization leads to forces of other systems to adjust and create stability.
Talcott Parsons
Different parts of society have different functions:

1- adaption to the environment (economic)
2- goal attainment (political)
3- integrating members into harmonious units (family)
4- maintain basic cultural patterns (church)
Robert Merton
social practices and consequences

manifest funct. - obvious, stated and intended

latent funct.- unintended, not apparent
conflict theory
emphasis on role of coercion and power - domination

a persons or groups ability to exercise influence and control over others in producing social order. owners over workers.

functionalism- cohesion within society
conflict theory- strife and function

shared values...
symbolic interaction
face to face interaction - micro
consider immediate social interaction is where society exists. analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors.
C Wright Mills
social imagination the ability to see society patterns that influence the individual and groups
sociology
the study of human behavior in society
social change
alternation of society over time
social interaction
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
exchange theory
the behavior of individuals is determined by the rewards or punishments they receive as they interact with others.
postmodernism
society is not an objective thing. Instead, it is found in th words and images or discourses that people use to represent behaviors and ideas. think that images and texts reveal the underlying ways that people think and act.
inductive reasoning
arrives at general conclusions from specific observations
deductive reasoning
specific influences are derived from general principles
quantitative research
uses numerical analysis
correlation,percentage, rate, mean, median, mode
qualitative research
less instruction, allows for more interpretation and nuance in what people say and do
independent variable
researcher wants to test as the presumed cause of something else
dependent variable
which there is a presumed effort
indicators
something that points to or reflects an abstract concept
data analysis
process by which sociologist organize collected data to discover the patterns and uniformities that the data reveal