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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sociology
is a science guided by the basic understanding that "the social matters: our lives are affected, not only by our individual characteristics but by our place in the social world."
Sociological Imagination
is the ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one's society influences the outcome.
Solidarity
refers to the level of connectedness and integration a person feels to others in the environment.
Social Control
refers to the level of connectedness and integration a person's actions.
Egotistic Suicides
are suicides that result from a lack of solidarity, occuring among those who have few social connections, feel isolated and alone, and are more likely to fall into despair.
Alturistic Suicides
are suicides that occur when the level of solidarity is exceptionally high and when the individual views the group's interest as superior to all other interests.
Fatalistic Suicides
are suicides that result from too much social control.
Anomic Suicides
are suicides that occur as a result of rapid change, usually economic
Paradigm
refers to a theoretical framework through which scientists study the world.
Functionalism
is a theoretical framework through which scientists study the world.
Conflict Theory
is a theoretical framework that views society as an unequal system that brings about conflict and change.
Symbolic Interactionism
is a theoretical framework that focuses on how people interact with others in their everyday lives.
Social Laws
are statements of fact that are unchanging under given conditions and can be used as ground rules for any kind of society.
Social Statics
are the existing structural elements of society.
Social Dynamics
are the changes in the existing structural elements of society.
Social Darwinism
is a notion that suggests strong societies survive and weak ones become extinct
Mechanical Solidarity
refers to the state of community bonding in traditional societies in which people share beliefs and values and perform common activities.
Oraganic Solidarity
occurs when people live in a society with a diverse division of labor.
Functions
are social factors that affect people in a society.
Manifest Functions
are functions that lead to an expected consequence or outcome.
Latent Functions
are functions that lead to unforseen or unexpected consequences.
Bourgeoisie
refers to members of the capitalist class.
Proletariat
refers to members of the poor working class.
False Consciousness
is a person's lack of understanding of his or her position in society.
Class Consciousness
is an understanding of one's position in the class system.
Self
refers to a person's identity and what makes that person different from others.
Contagion
is a rapid, irrational mode in which people do not think rationally or clearly.
Dramaturgy
is a theory of interaction in which all life is like acting.
Community Learning
occurs when individuals and groups work to identify and address issues of public concern.
Objectivity
is the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices to influence you.
Independent Variables
are variables that are deliberately manipulated in an experiment.
Dependent Variables
are the response to the manipulated variable.
Control Variables
are variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable.
Causal Relationship
is a relationship in which one condition leads to a certain consequence.
Causation
is the relationship between cause and effect.
Correlation
is an indication that one factor might be the cause for another factor.
Positive Correlation
includes two variables that move in a parallel direction.
Negative Correlation
occurs when variables move in opposite directions.
Spurious Correlation
occurs when two variables appear to be related, but actually have a different cause.
Social Research
is investigation conducted by social scientists.
Literature Review
is a study of relevant academic articles and information.
Theory
is a comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions.
Hypothesis
involves a suggestion about how variables relate.
Concepts
are ideas that are impossible to measure.
Operationalizing
is turning abstract ideas into something measurable.
Research Design
refers to the process used to find information.
Reliable
able to be trusted.
Validity
assures that you're actually measuring the thing you set out to measure.
Comparative Studies
use data from different sources in order to evaluate them against each other.
Cross-Sectional Studies
look at one event at a single point in time.
Longitudinal Studies
include data from observations over time using a cohort.
Cohort
is a specific group of people used in a study.
Survey
is an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions.
Populations
are target groups from which researchers want to get information.
Parsimony
is extreme unwillingness to use resources.
Sample
is a subset of the population.
Generalization
is the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which the sample is taken.
Random Sample
is a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a defined population.
Oversampling
is the process of taking a bigger sample if the group you wish to study makes up a small percentage of the whole population.
Sample of Convenience
is a nonrandom sample available to the researcher.
Selection Effects
are the likelihood that a non representative sample may lead to inaccurate results.
Hawthorne Effect
occurs when people behave differently because they know they are part of an experiment.
Field Research
is research conducted in a natural setting.
Participant Observation
is a type of field research in which the researcher poses as a person who is normally in the environment.
Case Studies
are investigations of one person or event in detail.
Ethnography
is a research method that aims to understand the social perspective and cultural values of a particular group by participating with or getting to know their activities in detail.
Secondary Data
data that others have already collected and published.
Secondary Data Analysis
the process of using and analyzing data that others have collected.
Central Tendency
the numbers in the middle of an array of numbers.
Mean
an average
Median
refers to the midpoint in a distribution of numbers.
Mode
refers to the most common value in a distribution of numbers.
Ethics
is a system of values or principles that guide one's behavior.
Quantitative Data
data based on numbers.
Qualitative Data
include words, pictures, photos, or any other type of information that comes to the researcher in a non numeric form
Content Analysis
is a type of research in which the sociologist looks for common words or themes in newspapers, books, or structured interviews.
Triangulatiion
the process of using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon.
Needs Assessment
an analysis that studies the needs of a specific group and presents the results in a written statement.