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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spotlight effect
belief that others are paying more attnetion to one's appearnce and behavior than they really are
illusion of transparency
illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
self-schema
beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
self-reference effect
tendnecy to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself
possible selves
images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
social comparisons
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
individualism
priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's idnetity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
collectivism
priority to the goals of one's groups and defining one's identity accordingly
interdependent self
construing one's identity in relation to others
confederate
accomplice of experimenter
impact bias
overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
immunge neglect
human tednency to neglect the speed nad strengty of the psychological immune system, which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
dual attitudes
differeing automatic (implicit) and consciously controlled (explicit_ attitudes toward the same object; implicit attidues change slowly
two elements that make up the self-concept
self-schema and possible selves
self-esteem
overall sense of self-worth we use to appraise our traits and abilities
self-efficacy
sense that one is competent and effective
locus of control
extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
learned helplessness
hopelessness and resignation learned when human, or animal, perceives no control over repeated bad events
what may happen when one is given too many choices
they may be less satisfied with what they have than when offered a smaller range of choices
self-serving bias
tendency to perceive oneself favorably
self-serving attributions
form of self-serving bias: tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors
defensive pessimism
adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate commonality of one's opinions and one's undesireable or unsuccessful behaviors
false uniqueness effect
tendency to underestimate commonality of one's abilities and one'es desirable or succssful behaviors
group-serving bias
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions
What do we often blame failures on?
the situation
self-handicapping
protecting one's self image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failutre
self-presentation
act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed ot create faborable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals
self-monitoring
attuned to the way one presents oneself in social dituations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression