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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests.
the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's costs.
Social-exchange theory
What internal rewards do we seek for helping?
-Reduction of guilt
-erase negative moods (except in anger and extreme guilt)
- Happy people are also more likely to help
Helping~ Friend dying of cancer (extreme guilt) story skewed to focus on the self or the friend. Those that felt extreme guilt were (more/less) likely to help.
Less. exception to sad people will help.
Research shoes People in bad moods and good moods help, how is this possible?
Helping enhances good feelings. Those in a bad mood's feelings get better and those already in a good mood strengthen the mood.
What are the effects of social norms on helping?
We often help because we feel we "ought to" or better stated society suggests it is acceptable or even required for us to.
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
reciprocity norm
Effects of gender on helping norms
Women are more likely to recieve help especially if they are percieved as incapable. Women are also more likely to seek help.
What two theories of help are proven by evolutionary psych:
Kin protection- the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.

Reciprocity- organisms help eachother because they expect something in return.
What is the downfall of the reciprocity norm?
if you are percieved to need help because of laziness or any other reason within your control, you are not deserving of help.
When do people help (according to social- responsibility norm?
when the person appears to really need it. Grocery shoppers will more often give an old women change for milk than cookie dough.
2 parted theory of why we help is beased on two assumptions.
1.) egoistic distress- it disturbs us to see others in distress so we help.

2.) empathy-based altruism
Altruism debate
Everyone agrees that some hepful acts are either obviously egoistic or even partially egoistic. Altruism?

it appears as though there is a true empathy and it is part of human nature. (biologically innate).
5 stages to decision making model for helping
1.) Noticing emergency
2.) Interpret as emergency
3.) Assume responsibility.
4.) Must know HOW TO help
5.) Must DECIDE TO help.
Smoke in test room study
Participants more likely to notice an event and interpret as an emergency when alone. Among others less likely.
Altruism debate
Everyone agrees that some hepful acts are either obviously egoistic or even partially egoistic. Altruism?

it appears as though there is a true empathy and it is part of human nature. (biologically innate).
Married vs stranger study
physical fighe between man and women and women says "get away i dont know why i ever married you" or "get away from me i dont know you." stramger condition was helped alot more often.
In order for someone to help an event must be considered an emergency. what is it called when we rely on others and see their disconcern as our own non-concern
pleuralistic ignorance
in testing the effects on groups in interpreting an emergency the results show pleuralistic ignorance, this is an example of what from ch. 6
Informational influence and normative influence (you "dont want to embarass yourself by appearing flustered")
Review on the bystander effect
the presence of others inhibits helping especially if the emergency is AMBIGUOUS and the other bystanders are STRANGERS and CANNOT read one another's reactions.
Helping when others do
Prosocial models do promote altruism. More likely to help if youve seen others being helpful.
time cosntraints and helping
Those who "are in a hurry or late" are less likely to help.
Similarity is conducive to liking and liking is conducive to helping. are we more likely to help those similar to ourselves?
Yes even miniscule similarities.

Even races are more likely to help "their own". When norms are clear everyone helps everyone when ambiguous prejudicial helping occurs.
Personality traits predicting helpfullness
For years nothing. Now there are a few. (network of traits that predisposes one to help, those high in self-monitoring are more likely if there are social rewards)
gender and helping
women are more likely to help in general. Men are mroe likely to help with something physical and especially women. Men also help when risky.
Religous faith and helping
religous individuals are slightly more likely to give help. More likely to give aid. more likely to be organizing some community charity.
increasing help by reducing ambiguity, how?
say "i saw him doing __________ and ADDING "its our responsibility we should do something.
increasing responsiblity creates more help, how?
Reducing annonimity makes a person more likely to help
A strategy for gaining concession. After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counteroffers a more reasonable request.
Door-in-the-face technique.
learning about altruism
makes people more likely to help.