Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cognitive Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding tow or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one’s customary, typically positive self-conception
Post-decision Dissonance
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives
Low balling
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently the customer will agree to make to purchase at the inflated price
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their linking for something they have worked hard to attain
External Justification
A reason or an explanation of dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual (e.g. in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment)
Internal Justification
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g. one’s attitudes or behavior
Conterattitudinal Advocacy
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one’s private belief or attitude
Insufficient Punishment
The dissonance aroused when the individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object
A long-lasting form of attitude change that results form attempts at self justification
Self- Discrepancy Theory
The idea that people become distressed when their sense of their actual self differs from their ideal self
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory
The idea that one’s self-concept can be threatened by another individual’s behavior and that the level of threat is determined by both the closeness of the other individual and the personal relevance of the behavior
Self- Affirmation Theory
The idea that people will reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence of some dimension unrelated to the treat
Self-Verification Theory
The idea that people have a need to seen confirmation of their self-concept, be it positive or negative, which in some circumstances can conflict the desire to uphold a favorable view of oneself
Self- Justification
The tendency to justify one’s actions in order to maintain one’s self-esteem
Rationalization Trap
The potential for dissonance reduction to produce a succession of self-justifications that ultimately result in a chain of stupid or immoral actions