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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
Cognitively Based Attitude
And attitude based primarily on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude
Affectively Based Attitude
An attitude based more on people’s feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
Classical Conditioning
The phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotion response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
Operant Conditioning
The phenomenon whereby behavior that people freely choose to perform increase or decrease in frequency, depending on whether they are followed by positive reinforcement or punishment
Behaviorally Based Attitude
An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
Explicit Attitudes
Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
Implicit Attitudes
Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious
Persuasive Communication
Communication (e.g., a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue
Yale Attitude Change Approach
The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on “who said what to whom” –the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
Elaboration Likelihood Model
And explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communication can cause attitude change; centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
Central Route to Persuasion
The case whereby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, as occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
The case whereby people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues
Need for Cognition
A personally variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
Fear-Arousing Communications
Persuasive messages that attempt to change people’s attitudes by arousing their fears
Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion
An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change; either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts (heuristics), such as “experts are always right”
Attitude Inoculation
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
Reactance Theory
The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior
Attitude Accessibility
The strength of the association between and attitude object and a person’s evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object
Theory of Planned Behavior
The idea that the best predictors of a person’s planned, deliberate behaviors are the person’s attitude toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Subliminal Messages
Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
Stereotype Threat
The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotypes