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96 Cards in this Set

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_____ would separate family in a test situation, watch response of infant and behavior of caregiver
ainsworth
when caregiver leaves, a secure child does what?
responds but generally maintains activity
when caregiver leaves, a resistant child does what?
jumps up and crys, does not continue previous activity
when caregiver leaves, a avoidant child does what?
not much of a response when they leave or return
what are 3 important things in choosing a day care
1. sufficient staff, so attention is paid

2. educational level of the staff

3. you can walkin any time u want
describe 3 components of emotion
1. subjective feelings (surprise, anger, guilt, etc)

2. physiological component- sympathetic arousal. correlates- heart rate increased by anger and fear but decreased by disgust

3. expressive action- universally recognized
facial feedback hypothesis
facial feedback hypothesis
the proposal that muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are then interpreted depending on the pattern as a subjective emotional state.
fisher proposed the question is love an emotion or a ___
___?
motivational state
james-lange theory
a theory of emotion that argues that body reactions precede and drive the subjective experience of emotions
cannon bard theory
a theory of emotion that argues that body reactions and subjective experiences occur together but independently
two factor theory and who proposed it
a theory of emotion that argues that the cognitive interpretation or appraisal of a body reaction drives the subjective experience of emotion (schachter and singer)
importance of recognizing early emotion:
emotion influences behavior and vice versa
who said that recognition of emotion exposes and validates
ginott
what are the assumptions of psychoanalysis
conflict resolution and subconscious (the conflicts are driven early in the memory, unaware by ego)
what is a treatment for psychoanalysis
identifying the cause. usually its from infancy or early childhood.
to reveal the subconscious you ...
use insight oriented discussion and dream analysis and free association
what is the resistance?
ego is going to try and protect the subconscious
what is transference?
emotional relationship with therapist develops
what is catharsis?
an overwhelming insight
freud said we may be slaves of ___ ___
repetitive compulsion (dating the same kind of guys)
what is the imago
describes parental influences, childhood hurts
what is mirroring?
one expresses feelings, and the partner listens and repeats back what they feel to understand
who is the theoretical father of the humanist school
maslow
what did wolpe do to cure catatonia
used reinforcement to shape behavior
psychodynamic theory
an approach to personality development, based largely on the ideas of sigmund freud that holds that much of behavior is governed by unconscious forces
id
in freuds theory, the portion of personality that is governed by inborn instinctual drives, particularly those related to sex and aggression (pleasure principle)
superego
in freuds theory the portion of personality that motivates people to act in an ideal fashion in accordance with the moral customs defined by parents and culture (ego ideal)
ego
in freuds theory, the portion of personality that induces people to act with reason and deliberation and helps them conform to the requirements of the external world (reality principle)
oral stage
the first stage in freuds conception of psychosexual development, occuring in the first year of life, in this stage pleasure is derived primarily from sucking and placing things in the mouth
anal stage
freuds second stage of psychosexual development, occuring in the second year of life; pleasure is derived from the process of defacation
phallic stage
freuds third stage of psychosexual development lasting from about age 3-5, pleasure is gained from self-stimulation of the sexual organs
latency period
freuds period of psychosexual development from age 5 to puberty, during which the child's sexual feelings are largely suppressed
genital stage
freuds final stage of psychosexual development during which one develops mature sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex
humanistic psychology
an approach to personality that focuses on people's unique capacity for choice, responsibility and growth
what are criticisms of the freudian model?
no scientific base, sexist against women, emphasis on sex/not evolutionary, not testable
psychoanalysis
freuds method of treatment that attempts to bring hidden impulses and memories which are locked in the unconscious, to the surface of awareness, thereby freeing the patient from disordered thoughts and behaviors
insight therapies
treatments designed to give clients self-knowledge, or insight, into the contents of their thought processes
free association
a technique used in psychoanalysis to explore the contents of the unconscious; patients are asked to freely express whatever thoughts and feelings happen to come to their minds
dream analysis
a technique used in psychoanalysis, freud believed that dreams are symbolic and contain important information about the unconscious
resistance
in psychoanalysis a patients unconsciously motivated attempts to subvert or hinder the process of therapy
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's expression of thoughts or feelings, toward the therapist that are actually representative of the way the patient feels about other significant people in his or her life
what are some problems with psychoanalysis?
memory reconstruction, catharsis as a cure, cost of treatment
what is the advantage of psychoanalysis?
it is insight oriented
erikson was responsible for the ___ approach to therapy
psychodynamic
erikson places an emphasis on...
the entire life span
trust vs mistrust
(birth-1) developing a sense of trust in otheres, will the people around me fulfill my needs?
autonomy vs shame or doubt
(1-3) developing a sense of self control, am i in charge of my own actions?
initiative vs guilt
(3-5) developing a sense of ones own drive and initiative: can i carry out plans? should i feel guilty for trying to carry out my own plans?
industry vs inferiority
(5-12) developing a sense of personal ability and competence: can i learn and develop new skills?
identity vs identity confusion
(adolescence) developing a single, unified concept of self, a sense of personal identity: who am i?
intimacy vs isolation
(young adulthood) Questioning the meanings of our relationships with others: can i form a commited relationship with another person, or will my personal insecurities lead to isolation?
generativity vs stagnation
(middle adulthood) conver over whether one has contributed to the success of children and future generations: have i contributed to the community at large?
integrity vs despair
(late adulthood) acceptance of ones life, successes and failures, ami content looking back on my life
who wrote the book "getting the love you want"
hendrix
what are fusers and isolators
fusers have a need for closeness, isolators have a need for space, they tend to pair
what are some psychodynamic exercises
identify childhood wounds & frustrations, compare imago and partner profile, unfinished business, mirroring
psychodynamic therapy is about becoming ____ ( ___ element)
conscious, cognitive
humanistic therapy
an approach to personality that focuses on peoples unique capacity for choice responsibility and growth
positive regard
the idea that we value what others think of us and that we constantly seek others approval, love, and companionship
self-actualizatircon
the ingrained desire to reach ones true potential as a human being
maslows hierarchy of needs
maslow proposed that our observable personality characteristics will indicate where we are positioned in the hierarchy of needs.
what is included in the hierarchy of needs?
self-actualization needs, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs, physiological needs
___ came up with the client centered or self-concept therapy that includes the following:
rogers, insightful, positive regard toward self, unconditional positive regard by therapist
humanistic treatment:
aid to developing rather than healing, need for positive regard
humanistic therapy
treatments designed to help clients gain insight into their fundamental self-worth and value as human beings
client centered therapy
a form of humanistic therapy proposing that it is the client not the therapist who holds the key to psychological health and happiness, the therapists role is to provide the genuineness, unconditioned positive regard, and empathy
behavioral therapies
treatments designed to change behavior through the use of established learning techniques
systematic desensitization
a technique that uses counterconditioning and extinction to reduce the fear and anxiety that have become associated with a specific object or event
behavioral therapy assumption:
environment influences and reinforcers
behavioral therapy treatment:
address the symptom
who wrote the book "the power of now" and what therapy is it under
tolle, cognitive
who wrote the book "seven habits of highly effective families" and what therapy is it under
covey, cognitive
Tolle's book suggests to remain ___ and observe __
in the present, the mind
cognitive therapies
treatments designed to remove irrational beliefs and negative thoughts that are presumed to be responsible for psychological disorders
the cognitive view of depressoon
cognitive therapists believe that internal thoughts and beliefs, not direct experience, lead to depression
cognitive psychology has you staying in the __
present
most important element of therapy:
the client has to want to change
the perception of another person is affected by..
the nature of preknowledge
first impressions are usually..
resistant to modification
personal bias- fundamental attribution error
automatically negatively labeling someone for their behavior (calling someone an idiot that cuts u off on the road)
fox reaches for grapes but cant reach them. this is an example of...
dissonance
fox says the grapes were probably sour anyway. this is an example of..
blaming the victim, just-world bias
implicit sterotyping can be revealed through ___. (psychologist?)
priming. dovidio
what are some physical characteristics used to form a first impression
facial expression, body language, attractiveness, neatness
attribution and logical analysis (psychologist?)
kelley
attribution- goal and mental processes (psychologist?)
krull
with a controlled attribution there is more ___ to attribute to ones ___
reluctance, personality
self serving bias:
attributing mistakes or success to situation for self, but personality for others
jones and heider came up with the _____
fundamental attribution error
social cognition
the study of how people use cognitive processes such as perception memory thought and emotion to help make sense of other people as well as themselves
stereotypes
the collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members
prejudice
positive or negative evaluations of a group and its members
discrimination
behaviors that are directed against members of a group
attributions
the inference processes people use to assign a cause and effect to behavior
fundamental attribution error
when people seek to interpret someone elses behavior they tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situation factors
self serving bias
the tendency to make internal attributions about ones own behavior when the outcome is positive and blame the situation when ones behavior leads to something negavtive