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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theories of Attachment
1. biological: imprinting
2. substantive: Freudian
3. substantive: Behaviorist
4. comfort: Bowlby
5. comfort: Harlow
Biological: Imprinting
(attachment)
Konrad Lorenz
ducks
sensitive/critical periods
Substantive: Freudian
(attachment)
fear of going unfed
Cupboard Theory
Substantive: Behaviorist
(attachment)
drive reduction: food from mom is primary reinforcer
love is secondary reinforcer
Comfort: Bowlby
(attachment)
attachment distinct from nourishment
fear of unfamiliar
attachment is primary drive for security
Comfort: Harlow
(attachment)
securty from contact comfort
monkeys & "moms"
contact critical for normal development
foster moms: social skills malleable
Parental Styles
1. authoritative: available but not interfering
2. autocratic: overly protective
3. permissive: unavailable
Sex
biological gender
physical differences of sexual reproductive organs
Gender
psychosocial gender
sense of male/female identity
social roles of men v. women
Gender Stereotypes
aggression, math, verbal, navigation/visuospatial, personality
Social Learning Theory
learn social behavior by observing & imitating and from rewards & punishments
Gender Schema Theory
children learn from cultures a concept of what it means to be male/female; adjust behavior accordingly
Stages of Gender Development
1. gender identity (2 y.o.)
2. gender stability (4 y.o.): understand stay sex whole life
3. gender consistency (7 y.o.): still same gender no matter what behavior
Phonological Processing
look at brain activity when listening to words; more activity in women than men
Mental Rotation & Testosterone
better at task with testosterone supplements
Trait
characteristic pattern of behavior; disposition to feel & act
Personality Inventory
questionnaire to guage wide range of feelings & behaviors
used to assess selected personality traits
Eysenck's Trait Theory
1. introversion-extroversion: unsociable v. sociable
2. neuroticism-stability: anxiety v. stability
3. psychoticism-non: aggression v. empathy
Big 5 Theory (OCEAN)
1. openness-nonopenness
2. conscientiousness-undirectedness
3. extroversion-introversion
4. agreeableness-antagonism
5. neuroticism-stability
Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory
1. extroversion<-->introversion
2. intuition<-->sensation
3. thinking<-->feeling
4. judging<-->perceiving
MMPI
personality test
identifies emotional disorders
empirically derived
Type A Personality
extremely competitive (increased heart attacks, smore more, drink more caffeine, sleep less)
Type B Personality
not competitive or in a rush
Barnum Effect
"A sucker is born every minute"
people willing to accept vague personality descriptions
Criteria for abnormal
disabling, maladaptive, irrational, unpredictable, statistically rare, discomforting, unethical/immoral
Objectivity in Classification
Cartwright
African-American slaves
sensory deficit to pain
drapetomania: pathological desire to run away
Objectivity in Diagnosis
Rosenhan
fake schizophrenic patients
undetected by staff, but suspected by patients
Objectivity in Treatment
Langer
watch video, half told normal, half told mental patient
affected how they perceived person in video
Symptoms
defining behavioral, cognitive or personal features
Etiology
factors which give rise to illness
Treatments
reduce symptoms, eliminate cuase, etc.
Models of Etiology
medical, biopsychosocial, psychoanalytical (Freud), behavioral/learning (+/- reinforcements), cognitive
DSM-IV
medical model
descriptive, not explanatory
Depression
major depressive disorder
manic episode
bipolar disorder
serotonin/norepinephrine
Schizophrenia
"split mind"
disorganized & delusional thinking
disturbed perceptions
Positive Symptoms
delusions, hallucinations, disordered thoughts & behaviors
dopamine overactivity: easier to treat
Negative Symptoms
flat affect, lack of will & motivation, paucity of movements
structural defects: larger ventricles
Learned Helplessness
dog example of not having control of environment
Explanatory Style
depressed person describes success/failures
-internal rather than external reasons
-global rather than specific
-stable rather than unstable (persistent trait)
Depression & Rumination
focus attention on current feelings (rumination) or geographic location (distraction)
depressed: rumination increased depression, distraction decreased
normal: no effect
Psychotrophic drugs
control, or mediate, symptoms of mental disorder
target specific neurotransmitter systems
Synpatic communication issues
either too much or too little neurotransmitters released between neurons
Antagonist Mechanisms
problem: too much
goal: decrease postsynaptic activity
treatment: block production, release, or receptors
Dopamine antagonist
for schizophrenics with overactive dopamine system
block receptors with Thorazine
Tardive Dyskinesia
involuntary muscle movements
side effect of Thorazine
Agonist Mechanisms
problem: too little
goal: increase postsynaptic activity
treatment: increase production or release, decrease deactivation or reuptake
Increase production
(anti-depressant)
increase Serotonin
ex. Fen-Phen
Block deactivation
(anti-depressant)
ex. MAO inhibitors (Phenelzine)
Block reuptake
(anit-depressant)
ex. Tricyclics (Clomiprazine)
Selectively block reuptake
(anti-depressant)
ex. SSRI's-Prozac (only block reuptake of Serotonin)
Behavioral Therapies
apply learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors or responses
aversive conditioning, systematic desensitization
Aversive Conditioning
pair noxious stimulus with unwanted behavior
nail-biting & nailpolish
Antabuse
used for alcoholics
induces severe vomiting & nausea when alcohol is consumed
Systematic Desensitization
like shaping, reduce anxiety incrementally through approximation
treating phobias
virtual reality
Psychoanalysis
attributes thoughts & actions to unconscious motives & conflicts
Free Association
say whatever comes to mind
explores unconscious
Id
primal urges (sexual & aggressive drives)
Superego
knows good from evil
internalized ideals (angel)
Ego
middle man
realistically brings pleasure rather than pain (not against society)
Psychosexual Stages
childhood
id's energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Fixation
lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies where conflicts were unresolved from childhood
Regression
retreating to infantile psychosexual stage when faced with anxiety
Defense Mechanisms
ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
Repression
banishes anxiety-causing thoughts, feelings & memories
Projection
"I don't want my sister's husband; he wants me"
Reaction Formation
do opposite of what feeling due to feelings of guilt
Self-Actualization
motivation to fulfill one's potential
Maslow studied productive & healthy people (Lincoln)