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102 Cards in this Set

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discovered that the nerves of each sensory system convey only one kind of data (specific energies)
Muller
discovered that the state of our nerves corresponds to that of objects in suitable and regular ways
Muller
Discovers that the critical distance of just noticeable differences varies according to the part of the body
Weber
Conducted psychology's first true experiments
Weber
discovered that the smallest distance we can perceive btw two stimuli is not an objective, fixed amount but is subjective and varies with the weights of the objects
Wever
Determined JND for length of two lines, temperatures of two objects, brightness of two lights, pitch of two tones
Weber
neural psychology
von Helmholtz
invented the opthalmoscope
von Helmholtz
wrote his dissertation under Muller
von Helmholtz
conducted experiments on frogs to support his mechanistic view of behavior
von Helmholtz
measured the speed with which nerve impulses travel along a nerve fiber
von Helmholtz
Discovered tha the human eye can detect red, yellow, and blue.
von Helmtholtz
Intrigued by Helmholtz's research on speed of the neural impulse
Donders
showed that some of the time taken to respond involved cognitive activity
Donders
Used elapsed time as a way to investigate unseen psychological processes
Donders
Sought to demonstrate that everything is composed of matter and soul
Fechner
Suffered severe photophobia and emotional collapse due to afterimage studies
Fechner
Some consider him the founder of experimental psychologyq
Fechner
Method of limits (determining the JND of the threshold of a stimulus)
Fechner
Method of constant stimuli
Fechner
Method of adjustment (comparison stimulus is adjusted until it is perceived as the same as the original stimulus)
Fechner
Greatest American Psychologist of his time
James
once said "the first lecture I ever heard in psychoogy was the one I gave"
James
used introspection to derive many of his hypotheses
James
Founded functionalism, which holds that the higher processes were developed over the ages by evolution because of their adaptive value
James
Believed that psychology could not explain the connections between physiological states and mental states.
James
Considered consciousness a process or higher functions that is a continuous flow
James
Believed in free will
James
Recognized that when we do not attend to experiences, we may remain mostly unconscious of them
James
Theorized that the nervous system produces physical symptoms such as emotion (James-Lange Theory)
James
suggestions of psychological principles to teaching became the core of educational psychology
James
Helped allocate money for mental health hospitals and training mental health professionals
James
Father of psychology
James
Sought to present a more holistic psychology by discussing each phenomenon first in mental terms and then in physiological ones
Hartley
Brought association as a doctrine to its nadir in logical, mechanistic, and molecular simplicity
James Mill
Rsetored to mainsteam associationsim much of what James Mill had pruned from it, particularly about the formation of complex ideas.
John Stuart Mill
Said that mind of infants are not blank sheets of paper since they have reflexes, instincts, and differences in acuteness
Bail
Monadology
Leibnitz
Categories
Kant
The human mind actively organizes and transforms the chaos of experience into sure knowledge
Kant
The principle founder of modern psychology
Wundt
in his labs first two decades, about a hundred major experimental research studies and numerous minor ones were conducted.
Wundt
nonsense syllables
Ebbinghaus
Added introspection to Ebbinghaus method
Muller
Systematic experimental introspection
Kulpe
mental set
Watt
invented analytic geometry
Descartes
the first great psychologist of the modern age
Descartes
dualism of body and mind
Descartes
the first to discuss what later would be called the reflex
Descartes
innate ideas
Descartes
the pineal body is where body and mind interact
Descartes
classified the passions - six primary ones
Descartes
all men are by nature the enemy of all other men
Hobbes
the first modern associationist
Hobbes
train of ideas
Hobbes
A cartesian who suggested that body and mind are like two clocks God winds up, sets running in perfect harmony and does nothing more
Geulincx
A complete determinist
Spinoza
Monistic parallelism
Spinoza
the father of english empiricism
Locke
primary/secondary qualities
Locke
advocate for religous toleration except for atheists, unitarians, and muslims
Locke
rejected the notion of innate ideas
Locke
ideas in the mind come from experiences
Locke
Bishop of Cloyne
Berkeley
there are only secondary qualities
Berkeley
to be perceived is to be
Berkeley
the brightest star of the Scottish enlightenment
Hume
impressions/ideas
Hume
Resemblance/contiguity/cause and effect
Hume
magician-healer
Mesmer
applied magnets to patients
Mesmer
plagiarized much of his dissertation from an Isaac Newton work
Mesmer
saw a link btw magnetism and his theory of animal gravitation
Mesmer
most noted practitioner of hypnosis, derived from mesmerism
Charcot
first showed several discoveries about the anatomy of the brain
Gall
best known for his theory of phrenology
Gall
thought differences among human beings in intelligence and personality might be due to measurable differences in individual cortical development
Gall
mapped out 27 regions of the skull each representing an underlying faculty
Gall
his theory led to the first experimental studies of the localization of brain functions
Gall
assisted Gall in his skull reading
Spurzheim
operated on brains and removed parts
Flourens
Tested to see if animals without certain areas of their brain responded differently
Flourens
could not disprove Gall totally
Flourens
discovered the area of the brain that governs syntax
Broca
discovered the area of the brain that understands the meaning of words.
Wernicke
discovered the site of motor control in the brain
Fritsch and Hitzig
established the difference between reflex and voluntary actions
Hales
located the spinal cord as the source of reflex instead of the brain
Hales
discovered that "animal electricity" flows through nerves and is responsible for movement
Galvani
worked to show that the nervous system consists of sensory nerves and motor nerves and the direction in which they flow
Bell/Magendie (worked independently)
wrote The Advancement of Learning
Francis Bacon
wrote Discource on Method
Descartes
wrote Leviathan
Hobbes
wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke
wrote An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision
Berkeley
wrote The Critique of Pure Reason
Kant
Handbook of Physiology
Muller
Elements of Psychophysics
Fechner
Principles of Physiological Psychology
Wundt
Principles of Psychology
James
Origin of Species
Darwin