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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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The feature of modern psychology which distinguishes it from its antecedents is its
- primary scientific field
- applies tools and methods from biology and physiology
- relies on controlled observation and experimentation
- Objectivity and precision and continually sought and refined.
The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on
Controlled observation and experimentation
The new discipline of psychology was the product of the union of
Philosophy and physiology
Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn
Putting the past into perspective to explain the present
The data of history are most accurately depicted or described as
- Material historians use to reconstruct lives, events and eras
- unique
-data fragments: the shards
In reading accounts of events and persons in the history of psychology, one must always question
Accuracy – data may be suppressed, lost or distorted
The terms "ego" and "id" as portrayed in Freud's works are examples of
Data distorted in translation
A surge in the practice of applied psychology occurred in response to the lack of jobs in academic settings for PhDs. Thus, the development of applied psychology was a direct consequence of
Economic opportunity
Psychology as a discipline has (hint: contextual factors)
Developed through external contextual forces – economic opportunity, world wards and prejudices and discrimination
A school of thought emerges whenever
They are protests against the current order that correct the predecessor’s errors and then incur their own protest; A group of psychologists become associated ideologically with the leader of the movement.
Kuhn (1970) defines a paradigm as
An accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers
From Kuhn's (1970) stance, psychology is in the _____ stage.
Preparadigmatic
The Zeitgeist of 17th‐ to 19th‐century Europe and of the U.S. was marked by
Mechanism
What are some ideas that psychology borrowed from natural philosophy?
Mechanism; clock; atoms; gravity
The description of behavior in terms of neurochemicals is an example of
Mechanism; clock; atoms; gravity
The description of behavior in terms of neurochemicals is an example of
Reductionism – phenomena that can be explained by reduction to their basic components; most fundamental part
Philosophy and science merged when it was determined that
Reduction of human mind to a machine; human functioning and behavior are governed by mechanical law
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to
Experience; observation
Descartes's dualism was novel in its emphasis on the what mind‐body relation?
Bidirectional; mutual interaction; mind influences body and vice versa
Descartes argued that because the body is matter, then the laws of _____ apply.
Physics and mechanics
Descartes posited that the mind‐body interaction occurred in the
Pineal gland or conarium
Descartes posited that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ____ ideas.
Innate
An important difference between Descartes's psychology and that of Locke was their positions about the existence of
Innate ideas; ideas develop within the mind rather than through senses; unlearned; instinctive;
Locke argued that ideas seem to us to be innate because
Ideas are learned early in live and become habit; all knowledge is empirically derived
For Locke, ideas are the result of
Two kinds of mental experiences; sensations (external) and reflections (sense impressions); combinations yield abstractions and other higher-level ideas
The notion of secondary qualities was posited by Locke to explain
Subjective, exist in the experience of the object
Hume's response to Locke's and Berkeley's arguments about objective versus subjective reality was that
No way of knowing; reality is perceived
Hartely argued that the physiological correlates of ideas are
Law of association: mechanical; theories of vibrations
J.S. Mill's metaphor of mental chemistry is known in modern psychology as
Creative synthesis
PET scans, which identify localization of different functions within the brain, is based on the earlier
Phrenology
The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is
Galvani
The paradigm of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th century reliance on
Mechanism
The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was
Inductive method; small to big
German universities were especially fertile grounds for scientific advances because
Ready acceptance of biology as science; broad definition of science; academic freedom in research and teaching
With regard to the speed of the nerve impulse, perhaps the most important outcome of Helmholtz's research for psychology was the determination
First empirical measurement of the rate of conduction of the neural impulse (90 feet/second)
Weber's Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the
JND – Just notable differences; constant ratios
Fechner's most important contribution to psychology was the
Psychophysics - A quantitative relationship between mind and body; between mental sensation and a material stimulus; two ways to measure (1) absolute threshold and (2) differential threshold of sensitivity – fore each sense there is a certain relative increase in stimulus intensity that always produces an observable change in intensity and sensation
Fechner’s conflict between the materialism of his training in medicine and his interest in metaphysical phenomena was resolved by his development of
Notion of pleasure principle
Arguably, modern psychology was originated with (Who’s original work?)
Fechner
Psychology as a "new domain of science" was formally established by
Wundt
The first formal school of thought in psychology was
Structuralism
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
Consciousness
In Wundt's laboratory, introspection was used to assess
Examination of one’s own mental state; personal thoughts & feeling
Wundt's observers used introspection to report
Judgment about the size and intensity of physical stimuli
Ebbinghaus's research involved the ____________ study of associations __________
Study with the initial formation of associations; study the chain of ideas as they were formed to make the study of learning more objective
Ebbinghaus’s contribution(s) to the development of modern psychology involved?
-development of memories
- basic learning measures
- non-identical but similar list of syllables
- nonsense syllables
- Founded journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organs
What was "meaningless" for Ebbinghaus?
Nonsense syllables to study memory; 9X harder to learn
Ebbinghaus's specific research involved the study of
Learning and memory
Some of the important findings of Ebbinghaus’s research pertained to?
Brought objectivity, quantification, and experimentation to the study of learning; work on association shifted from speculation about its attributes to formal scientific investigations;
For Brentano, the primary research method was
Systematic observation; empirical data
The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to
Act psychology – mental activity
Act psychologists argued that the two ways of systematically studying mental acts were
memory and imagination
Stumpf's method of observation was
Phenomenology – examination of the unbiased experience
Kulpe's Systematic experimental introspection involves
Involved performance of a complex task; subjects gave retrospective report of the cognitive processes experienced during the tasks
Kulpe's identification of consciousness experiences not based on sensations refuted Wundt's
Definition of the scope of psychology
Marbe and Watt extended the work and influence of the Wurzberg school with their
Suggestions that the unconscious mind can have an influence on human behavior
Wundt's focus was on ____ whereas Titchener's was on ____
-Experimental- not mechanical – concern was organization;
-structuralism – mechanical – focus on elements themselves, break them down and then discover structure
Titchner argued that knowledge of the elementary conscious experiences would
Determine its structure
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication,
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice
Titchener vigorously cautioned experimental psychologists about the stimulus error; that is,
Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed
Titchener insisted that observers focus on
Elementary states of consciousness; elements of their states of consciousness
For Titchener, consciousness was defined as
The sum of our experiences existing at a given time
William James described consciousness as cumulative and not recurrent. In this regard, his notion of consciousness is the same as Titcheners' notion of
Mind: the sum of our experiences over a lifetime
Titchener's method of introspection was not like ____ method.
Wundt’s
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?
Elementary states of consciousness; characteristics of mental elements;
By 1896, Titchener had identified approximately how many elements of sensation?
44,500
Toward the end of Titchener's career, his system came to sound more like that of
James Mill
Two contributions of Titchener's structuralism to modern psychology are
Conscious experience clearly defined; research methods: experimental; introspection remains viable method; impact on cognitive psychology; strong base against which others could rebel.
Functionalism was an intentional protest of the limitations of
Wundt’s experimental psychology and Titchner’s structural psychology; both which were restrictive
The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were
Darwin and Galton
The social Zeitgeist of the mid‐1800s was affected by the impact of
Industrial Revolution
Darwin's ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin's work was his
Variation among members of the species; those that cannot adapt do not survive; survival of the fittest
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the
Natural Selection
The most profound influences of Darwin's work on psychology were
Similarity between animals and humans; facial expression; developmental;
A secondary consequence of Darwin's work for psychology was
Individual differences and their measurements
An early 20th‐century American government policy was to sterilize mentally retarded females. Nazis in the 1930s and 1940s practiced genocide of Jews Poles, and gypsies. In 1995, genocide is practiced in Serbia/Croatia/Bosnia as well as in certain African nations. All these political acts are examples of Galton’s science of
Hereditary Genius; Eugenics
Galton said that the proportion of eminence which could be attributed to environmental influences was ____?
0
The notion of the correlation was developed by
Galton
Mental tests were originated by
Galton
Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed a correlation between intelligence and
Sensory capacities
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of
Events in childhood and adolescences, an early demonstration of the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality
To study mental imagery, Galton used which self‐report method?
Psychological questionnaire
According to ______, animals have no soul and thus are automata.
Descartes
According to Darwin, humans’ emotional expressions reflect
Inheritance of behavior once useful to animals
Whenever we think we “know what’s on someone’s mind,” we are using which technique?
Introspection by analogy
The intent of Lloyd Morgan’s canon was to
To counteract the prevailing tendency to attribute excessive intelligence to animals; behavior must not be interpreted as the outcome of a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of lower mental process.
The influence of the work of Romanes and Morgan for American psychology was their focus on
Comparative psychology; Functional Psychology
An important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the U.S was the
Evolutionary Theory; Social Darwinism
Spencer’s adaptation of evolutionary theory resulted in his
System called synthetic philosophy; idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principle.
For Spencer, the universe operates in accord with
???
For Spencer, the human mind represents
Exist in present form due to past and continuing efforts to adapt to environments
James was most vociferously criticized by other early psychologists because he
Many viewed him as negative force because he maintained a widely publicized interest in mental telepathy, clairvoyance, spiritualism, community with the dead at séances, and other mystical events
“An elaboration of the obvious” was James’s epithet for
Psychology
James was convinced by writing his own book, The Principles of Psychology (1890), that
He had nothing more to say about psychology
James’s approach to psychology was to view it as
A study of living people as they adapt to their environments
For James, repetition of a behavior
Is a habitual action that involves the nervous system and serve to increase the plasticity of neural matter.
Dewey’s analysis of ______ was the work that most keenly protested structuralism.
??
For Angell the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is
Essential
For Carr, the subject matter of psychology is
Mental activity/processes, including memory, perception, feeling, imagination, judgment, will
The hallmark of Woodworth’s psychology was his
Dynamic psychology