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106 Cards in this Set

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Clumping effect occurring when an antibody acts as a cross link between two antigens
agglutination
a protein substance developed by the body in response to an interacting with a specific antigen
antibody
substance that induces the production of antibodies
antigen
the specific area of an antigen that binds with an antibody combining site and determines the specificity of the antigen antibody reaction.
antigenic determinant
programmed cell death that results from digestion of deoxyribonucleic acid by endonucleases
apoptosis
cells that are important for producing a humoral immune response
B cells
the immune systems third line of defense involving the attack of pathogens by T cells
cellular immune response
Series of enzymatic proteins in the serum that when activated destroy bacteria and other cells
complement
generic term for nonantibody proteins that act as inter-cellular mediators as in the generation of immune response.
cytokines
Lympphocytes that lyse cells infected with virus; also play a role in graft rejection
cytotoxic T cells
any component of an antigen molecule that functions as an antigenetic determinant by permitting the attachment of certain antibodies
epitope
emerging technology designed to enable replacement of missing or defective genes
genetic engineering
lympocytes that attack foreign invaders (antigens) directly
helper T cells
the immune systems second line of defense; often termed the antibody response
humoral immune response
The coordinated response of the components of the immune system to a foreign agent or organism
immune response
the collection of organs, cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate the immune response.
immune system
The body's specific protective response to a foreign agent or organism; resistance to disease specifically infectious disease
immunity
study of diseases resulting in dysfunctions within the immune system
immunopathology
complex system of checks and balances that regulates or controls immune responses.
immunoregulation
proteins formed when cells are exposed to viral or foreign agents; capable of activation other components of the immune system.
interferons
substances released by sensitized lymphocytes when they come in contact with specific antigens
lymphokines
cells that are responsible for recognizing antigens from previous exposure and mounting an immune response.
memory cells
lymphocytes that defend against microorganisms and malignant cells
natural killer cells NK
lymphocytes that destroy antigens already coated with the anitbody
null lymphocytes
the coating of antigen antibody molecules with a sticky substance to facilitate phagocytosis
opsonization
cells that engulf ingest and destroy foreign bodies or toxins
phagocytic cells
the immune systems first line of defense involving white blood cells that have the ability to ingest foreign particles
phagocytic immune response
precursors of all blood cells; reside primarily in bone marrow
stem cells
lymphocytes that decrease B cell activity to a level at which the immune system is compatible with life
suppressor T cells
cells that are important for producing a cellular immune response
T cells
This immune system disorder is a normal protective immune response paradoxically turns against or attacks the body leading to tissue damage.
Autoimmunity
When this immune system disorder occurs the body produces inappropriate or exaggerated responses to specific antigens.
Hypersensitivity
This immune system disorder happens immunoglobulins are overproduced
gammopathies
When this immune system disorder occurs a dificiency results from improper development of immune cells or tissues; usually congenital or inherited.
Primary Immune deficiencies
When this immune system disorder occurs a deficiency results from some interference with an already developed immune system usually acquired later in life.
Secondary immune deficiencies
WBC x Neutrophils = ANC

WBC = 6.8 Neutrophils = .53

Then the ANC is ?
ANC = 3.604
A deficient immune system response that is congenital in origin would be classified as what kind of disorder?

a. Autoimmune

b. Gammopathy

c. Natural deficiency

d. Hypersensitivity
c
The immune system is essentially composed of?

a. bone marrow

b. lymphoid tissue

c. white blood cells

d. all of the above
d
The primary production site of white blood cells involved in immunity is the?

a. bone marrow

b. adenoids

c. thymus gland

d. spleen
a
T lymphocytes, descendants of stem cells, mature in the?

a. bone marrow

b. spleen

c. thymus

d. lymph nodes
c
Granulocytes, which fight invasion by releasing histamine, do not include?

a. basophils

b. eosinophils

c. lymphocytes

d. neutrophils
c
The leukocytes that arrive first at a site where inflammation occurs are?

a. B lymphocytes

b. cytotoxic T cells

c. helper T cells

d. neutrophils
d
White blood cells that function as phagocytes are called?

a. basophils

b. eosinophils

c. monocytes

d. lymphocytes
c
An example of biologic response modifiers that interfere with viruses is?

a. bradykinin

b. eosinophils

c. granulocytes

d. interferon
d
The body's first line of defense is the?

a. antibody response

b. cellular immune response.

c. phagocytic immune response

d. white blood cell response
c
The primary cells responsible for recognition of foreign antigens are?

a. Effector

b. Proliferation

c. Recognition

d. Response
b
During the proliferation stage.....

a. antibody producing plasma cells are produced

b. lymph nodes enlarge

c. lymphocytes rapidly increase

d. all of the above occur
d
Antibobies are believed to be a type of?

a. carbohydrate

b. fat

c. protein

d. sugar
c
Cell mediated immune responses are responsible for all of the following except?

a. anaphylaxis

b. graft verus host reactions

c. transplant rejection

d. tumor destruction
a
It is important to realized that cellular membrane damage results from all the following except?

a. activation of complement

b. antibody antigen binding

c. arrival of killer T cells

d. attraction of macrophage
b
Effector T cells destroy foreign organisms by?

a. alternating the antigens cell membrane

b. causing cellular lysis

c. producing lymphokines which destroy invading organisms

d. all of the above mechanisms
d
Helper T cells accomplish all of the following except?

a. alter the cell membrane by causing cell lysis

b. produce lymphokines that activate T cells

c. produce cytokines

d. activate B cells and macrophages
a
Complement acts by?

a. attracting phagocytes to an antigen

b. destroying cells through destruction of the antigens membrane.

c. rendering the antigen vulnerable to phagocytosis

d. a combination of all of the above.
c
Interferon is a lymphokine that exerts its effect by?

a. increasing vascular permeability

b. inhibiting the growth of certain antigenic cells.

c. stopping the spread of viral infections

d. suppressing the movement of macrophages.
d
Trace elements essential for optimum immune function including all of the following except?

a. cholesterol

b. copper

c. manganese

d. selenium
a
Enhances phagosytosis
IgE
appears in intravascular serum
IgM
helps defend against parasites
IgE
activates complement system
IgG
protects against respiratory infections
IgA
influences B lyphoctye differentiation
IgD
prevents absorption of antigents from food
IgA
A protein substance that responds to a specific antigen is ________________
antibody
Enzymatic proteins that destroy bacteria
complement
A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
antigen
Lymphocytes that directly attack antigens
Helper T
Cells that engulf and destroy foreign bodies
Phagocytes
Proteins formed when cells are exposed to foreign agents?
Interferons
Immune function is affected by a variety of factors what are they?
1. central nervous system

2. integumentary system

3. general physical condition (fitness)

4. emotional status

5. medications

6. dietary patterns

7. stress of illness

8. trauma

9. surgery
____________ is a property of the immune system that provides protection against harmful microbial agents despite the timing of re exposure to the agent.
Immune memory
True or false

Like other blood cells lymphocytes are generated from stem cells.
True
There are two types of lymphocytes what are they?
B cells and T cells
____ cells mature in the bone marrow and then enter circulation
B cells
_________ cells mature in the thymus where they mature into several kinds of cells with different functions.
T cells
True or false?

The spleen composed of red and white pulp acts somewhat like a filter.
True
The ______ pulp is the site where old and injured red blood cells are destroyed.
Red
The ______ pulp contains concentrations of lymphocytes.
white
The _________ remove foreign material from the lymph system before it enters the blood stream.
lymph nodes
True or false

The lymph nodes also serve as center for immune cell proliferation.
True
What is the function of the immune system?
To remove foreign antigens such as viruses and bacteria to maintain homeostasis.
What are the two types of general immunity?
1. Natural (inate)

2. acquired (adaptive)
True or false?

Natural immunity or nonspecific immunity is present at birth.
True
True or false?

Acquired or specific immunity develops after birth.
True
_______ immunity is considered the first line of host defense because it protects the host without remembering prior contact with an infectious agent.
Natural
Natural immunity co coordinates the initial response to pathogens through the production of __________ and other effector molecules.
Cytokines
What cells are involved in the acquired immune response?
1. Monocytes

2. macrophages

3. dendritic cells

4. natural killer cells

5. basophils

6. eosinophils

7. granulocytes
There are two types of lymphocytes what are they?
There are two types of lymphocytes B lymphocytes
(B cells) and T lymphocytes
(Tcells)
Granular leukocytes, or granulocytes fight invasion by foreign bodies or toxins by?
Releasing cell mediators, such as histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins, and engulfing the foreign bodies or toxins. Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and ba-sophils.
_____________are the first cells to arrive at the site where inflammation occurs.
Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs])
_____________ and _________ are other types of granulocytes and increase in number during allergic reactions and stress responses.
Eosinophils and basophils
Nongranular leukocytes include ____________ or _________ (referred to as histiocytes when they enter tissue spaces) and lymphocytes.
monocytes or macrophages
True or false?

The immune system’s recognition of one’s own tissues as “foreign” rather than as self is the basis of many autoimmune disorders.
True
True or false?

Regulatory mechanisms must be in place to suppress or halt the immune response. This is mainly achieved by the production of cytokines and transformation of growth factor that inhibits macrophage activation.
true
______________ immunity usually develops as a result of prior exposure to an antigen through immunization (vaccination) or by contracting a disease, both of which generate a protective immune response.
Acquired (adaptive)
When the body is invaded or attacked by bacteria, viruses,or other pathogens, it has three means of defense. What are they?
1. The phagocytic immune response

2. The humoral or antibody immune response

3. The cellular immune response
Is this IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or IgE?

This Ig? appears in serum and tissues (interstitial fluid) it assumes a major role in bloodborne and tissue infections, activates the complement system, enhances phagocytosis, and crosses the placenta.
IgG
Is this IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or IgE?

This Ig?appears in body fluids such as blood, saliva, tears, breast milk, and pulmonary, gastrointestinal, prostatic, and vaginal secretions. It protects against respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary infections. It prevents absorption of antigens from food and passes to neonate in breast milk for protection.
IgA
Is this IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or IgE?

This Ig? Appears mostly in intravascular serum. it appears as the first immunoglobulin produced in response to bacterial and viral infections and activates the complement system.
IgM
Is this IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or IgE?

This Ig? appears in small amounts in serum possibly influences B lymphocytes differentiation but the role is unclear.
IgD
Is this IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or IgE?

This Ig? appears in serum takes part in allergic and some hypersensitivity reactions and combats parasitic infections.
IgE
This interleukin promotes differentiation of T and B lymphocytes
Interleukin - 1
This interleukin stimulates growth of T lymphocytes and special activated killer lymphocytes (known as lymphocyte activated killer cells)
Interleukin - 2
This interleukin stimulates growth of mast cells and other blood cells.
Interleukin - 3
This interleukin stimulates growth of T and B lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages.
Interleukin - 4
This interleukin stimulates antibody responses
Interleukin - 5
This interleukin stimulates growth and function of B lymphocytes and antibodies.
Interleukin - 6