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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) approved the first antiretrovial drug for AIDS 6 years after the first case was reported in?

a. 1978

b. 1982

c. 1987

d. 1991
c
After infection with HIV, the immune system responds by making antibodies against the virus, usually within how may weeks after infection?

a. 1 to 2 weeks

b. 3 to 6 weeks

c. 3 to 12weeks

d. 6 to 18 weeks
c
Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) medications should be started within _________ after exposure, but no longer than ________ to offer any benefit, and must be taken for __________.
1 hr, 72hrs, 4wks
Up to 85% of individuals infected with HIV will develop symptoms of AIDS within how many years after infection?

a. 3 to 5 yrs

b. 6 to 7 yrs

c. 8 to 10 yrs

d. 12 to 15 yrs
c
Abnormal laboratory findings seen with AIDS include?

a. decreased CD4 and T cell count

b. p24 antigen

c. Positive EIA test

d. all of the above
c
A widely used laboratory test that measures HIV RNA levels and tracks the body's response to HIV infection is the?

a. CD4/CD8 ratio

b. EIA test

c. viral load test

d. Western blot.
c
An example of an antiretroviral agent classified as a fusion inhibitor that must be injected subcutaneously twice a day is?

a. Agenerase

b. Combivir

c. Fuzeon (T20)

d. Retrovir
c
A nurse knows that all of the following antiretroviral agants can be taken without regard to food intake except for?

a. Hivid

b. Epivir

c. Sustiva

d. Videx
c
One of the most frequently systemic side effects of the anti HIV drugs is?

a. osteoporosis

b. hyuperglycemia

c. lipodystrophy snydrome

d. pancreatitis
c
A nurse would know that all of the following conditions are classified as HIV category B except?

a. candidiasis

b. herpes zoster

c. Kaposi sarcoma

d. Listeriosis
c
The most common infection in persons with AIDS (80% occurrence) is?
Pneumocystis pneumonia
The most debilitating gastrointestinal condition found in up to 90% of all AIDS patients is?
chronic diarrhea
A diagnosis of "wasting syndrome" can be initially made when involuntary weight loss exceeds what percentage of body weight?
10%
The minimum number of daily calories recommended for a 70kg individual with AIDS related "wasting syndrome" is?

a. 1500 cal

b. 2000 cal

c. 2800 cal

d. 4000 cal
c
The minimum number of daily protein calories for a 70kg individual with AIDS related "wasting syndrome" is?

a. 20 calories

b. 35 calories

c. 45 calories

d. 60 calories
b
The most common malignancy seen in HIV infections is?

a. carcinoma of the skin

b. Kaposi's sarcoma

c. pancreatic cancer

d. stomach cancer
b
Long term adherence to HIV treatment regimens remains at about?

a. 10% compliance

b. 15 to 25% compliance

c. 30 to 50% compliance

d. greater than 75% compliance
c
As of 2008 approximately ________ million people are living with HIV/AIDS.
33%
The percentage of women afflicted with HIV/AIDS is?
50%
The most heavily afflicted country with HIV/AIDS is?
Sub Sahara Africa
The two major means of HIV transmissions are?
1. Unprotected sex
2. Sharing of needles
List the five types of body fluids that can transmit HIV.
1. blood
2. seminal fluid
3. vaginal secretions
4. amniotic fluid
5. breast milk
True or false?

HIV belongs to a group of viruses known as retroviruses that carry their genetic material in the from of RNA rather than DNA
true
The standard new HIV testing method now used when information about HIV status is needed immediately (ER, labor, and delivery) is __________-
Ora quick test
Drug resistance can be defined as?
The ability of pathogens to withstand the effects of medications that are intended to produce toxicity.
A fungal infection present in nearly all patients with AIDS is?
candidasis
A recommended chemotheraputic agent from Kaposis sarcoma is?
Alfa interferon
The second most common malignancy in people with AIDS is?
B cell Lymphoma
Protein substance that the body produces in response to infection
Alpha interferon
Common malignancy in patients with HIV/AIDS
B cell lymphoma
Yeast infection of the skin or mucous membrane
candidiasis
____________ along with the CD4+ receptor, this cell surface molecule is used by HIV to fuse with the hosts cell membranes.
CCR5
a species specific herpes virus that may cause retinitis in people with AIDS.
cytomegalovirus
a blood test that can determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or saliva; also referred to as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive results must be validated, usually with Western blot test.
EIA (enzyme immunoassay)
Retrovirus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS.
HIV - 1
Retrovirus identified in 1986 in aids patients in West Africa.
HIV - 2
Degenerative neurological condition characterized by a group of clinical presentations including loss of coordination, mood swings, loss of inhibitions, and wide spread cognitive dysfunctions; formerly referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC).
HIV encephalopathy
Viruse that causes arious warts, including plantar and genital warts; some strains of HPV can also cause cervical cancer.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
a syndrome that results from rapid restoration of pathogen specific immune responses to opportunistic infections; most often occurs after starting antiretroviral therapy.
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
malignancy that involves the epithelial layer of blood and lymphatic vessels
Kaposi's sarcoma
the integrated HIV provirus within the CD4 + T cell during the resting memory state; does not express viral proteins and is invisible to teh immune system and antiviral medications.
latent reservoir
Large immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders; can harbor large quantities of HIV without being killed, acting as a reservoir of the virus.
macrophage
large white blood cell that ingests microbes or other cells and foreign particles.
monocyte
true or false?

When a monocyte enters tissues, it develops into a macrophage.
true
opportunistic infection caused by mycobacterial organisms that commonly causes a respiratory illness but can also infect other body system.
mycobacterium avuim complex.
illness caused by various organisms, some of which usually do not cause disease in people with normal immune systems.
opportunistic infection
blood test that measures viral core protein; accuracy of test is limited because the antibody binds with the antigen and makes it undetectable.
p24 antigen
disorder characterized by sensory loss pain, muscle weakness, and wasting of the muscles in the hands or legs and feet.
peripheral neuropathy
common opportunistic lung infection caused by an organism believed to be a fungus based on its structure.
Pneumocystis pneumonia or pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)
a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect the quantify HIV in a persons blood or lymph nodes.
polymerase chain reaction
4 to 7 week period of rapid viral replication immediately following infection; aka acute HIV infection
primary infection
opportunistic infection that infects brain tissue and causes damage to the brain and spinal cord.
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
medication that inhibits the function of protease, an enzyme needed for HIV replication.
protease inhibitor
viral genetic material the form of DNA that has been integrated into the host genome. When it is dormant in human cells HIV is in a proviral form.
provirus
a virus that carries genetic material in RNA instead of DNA and contains reverse transcriptase.
retrovirus
enzyme that transforms single strand RNA into a double stranded DNA.
reverse transcriptase
measures the quantity of HIV RNA in the blood initial burst of viremia and the immune response that follows
viral set point
involuntary weight loss of 10% of baseline body weight with chronic diarrhea or chronic weakness and documented fever
wasting syndrome
a blood test that identifies antibodies to HIV and is used to confirm the results of an EIA (ELISA) test.
Western blot assay
time from infection with HIV until serocconversion detected on HIV antibody test.
window period