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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
As a cause of death in the US cancer ranks?

a. first

b. second

c. third

d. fourth
b
Cancer mortality in the US is highest among?

a. African Americans

b. American Indians

c. Caucasians

d. Hispanics
a
The etiology of cancer can be associated with specific agents or factors such as?

a. dietary and genetic factors

b. hormonal and chemical agents

c. viruses

d. All of the above
d
David, age 67 is admitted for diagnostic studies to rule out cancer. He is white has been employed as a landscaper for 40 yrs and has a 36yr history of smoking one pack of cigarettes a day. David has three risk factors associated with the development of cancer. Choose the least significant risk factor among the following.

a. age

b. sex

c. occupation

d. race
d
Cancer cells can affect the immune system by?

a. stimulating the release of T lymphocytes into the circulation.

b. suppressing the patients natural defenses

c. mobilizing macrophages

d. all of the above.
d
To reduce nitrate intake because of possible carcinogenic action the nurse suggests that a patient decreases his or her intake of ?

a. eggs and milk

b. fish and poultry

c. ham and bacon

d. green leafy vegetables
c
An endoscopic procedure can be used to remove an entire piece of suspicious tissue growth. The diagnostic biopsy method used for this procedure is known as?

a. excisional biopsy

b. incisional biopsy

c. needle biopsy

d. staging
a
A patient is admitted for excisional biopsy for a lesion. The nurse should do all of the following except?

a. clarify information provided by the physician.

b. provide aseptic care to the incision postoperatively.

c. provide time for the patient to discuss her concerns
d. counsel the patient about the possibility of losing her breast.
d
A patient is scheduled for an outpatient procedure whereby liquid nitrogen is used to freeze a cervical cancer. The procedure is known as?

a. chemosurgery

b. cryosurgery

c. laser surgery

d. interrupt cellular growth when nonsurgical approach is needed.
b
Surgery done to remove lesions that are likely to develop into cancer is known as?

a. diagnostic

b. palliative

c. prophylactic

d. reconstructive
c
An example of palliative surgery is a?

a. colectomy

b. cordotomy

c. mastectomy

d. nephrectomy
b
The incorrect rationale for effectiveness of radiation therapy is its ability to?

a. cause cell death

b. break the strands of the DNA helix.

c. disrupt moitosis by slowing dividing cells.

d. interrupt cellular growth when a nonsurgical approach is needed.
c
Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer is administered over several weeks to?

a. allow time for the patient to cope with the treatment.

b. allow time for the repair of healthy tissue.

c. decrease the incidence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
accomplish all of the above.
b
A patient with uterine cancer is being treated with internal radiation therapy. A primary nursing responsibility is to?

a. explain to the patient that she will continue to emit radiation for approximately 1 week after the implant is removed.

b. maintain as much distance as possible form the patient while in the room.

c. Alert family members that they should restrict their visiting to 5 mins at any one time.

d. accomplish all of the above.
a
A major disadvantage of chemotherapy is that it?

a. attacks cancer cells during their vulnerable phase.

b. functions against disseminated disease.

c. is systemic

d. targets normal body cells as well as cancer cells.
d
When a patient takes vincristine a plant alkaloid the nurse should assess for symptoms of toxicity affecting the?

a. gastrointestinal system

b. nervous system

c. pulmonary system

d. urinary system
b
Initial nursing action for extravasation of a chemotherapeutic agent includes all of the following except?

a. applying warm compresses to phlebitic area.

b. immediately discontinuing the infusion.

c. injecting an antidote if required

d. placing ice over the site of infiltration.
a
Realizing that chemotherapy can result in renal damage the nurse should?

a. encourage fluid intake to dilute the urine

b. take measures to acidify the urine and thus prevent uric acid crystallization.

c. withhold medication when the blood urea nitrogen level exceeds 20 mg/dL.

d. limit fluids to 1000 mL daily to prevent accumulation of the drugs end products after cell lysis.
a
Allopurinol may be prescribed for a patient who is receiving chemotherapy to?

a. stimulate the immune system against the tumor cells.

b. treat drug related anemia

c. prevent alopecia

d. lower serum and urine uric acid levels.
d
The use of hyperthermia as a treatment modality for cancer may cause?

a. fatigue, nausea, and vomiting.

b. hypotension, skin burn, and tissue damage.

c. thrombophlebitis, diarrhea, and peripheral neuropathies.

d. all of the above side effects
d
Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is a nonspecific biologic response modifier that is a standard form of treatment for cancer of the?

a. bladder

b. breast

c. lungs

d. skin
a
The nurse should assess a cancer patients nutritional status by?

a. weighing the patient daily

b.monitoring daily calorie intake

c. observe for proper wound healing

d. doing all of the above.
a
The most frequently occurring gram positive cause of infection in cancer patients is?

a. candida albicans

b. Escherichia coli

c. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

d. Staphylococcus
d
The most common cause of bleeding in cancer patients is?

a. anemia

b. coagulation disorders

c. hypoxemia

d. thrombocyotpenia
d
List in order of frequency the three leading causes of cancer deaths in the US for men.
1. Lung

2. prostate

3. colorectal
List in order of frequency the three leading causes of cancer deaths in the US for women.
1. Breast

2. Lung

3. colorectal area
Define the cause of cancer.
Cancer begins when an abnormal cell after being transformed by the genetic mutation of DNA forms a clone and begins to proliferate abnormally ignoring growth regulating signals.
The altered cell membranes of malignant cells contain tumor specific antigens. List two examples.
1. carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

2. prostate specific antigen (PSA)
The two key ways by which cancer is spread are _________ and __________.
lymph and blood
About _________% of all cancers are thought to be related to the environment.
75%
The single most lethal chemical carcinogen that accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths is?
tobacco smoke
Two examples of an ingerited cancer susceptibility syndrome are _________ and _______________
breast and ovarian cancer syndrome
List seven cancers that are associated with an increased intake of alcohol.
1. mouth
2. pharynx
3. larynx
4. esophagus
5. liver
6. colorectum
7. breast
Dietary substances appear to reduce cancer risk are?
1. cabbage
2. broccoli
3. cauliflower
Dietary substances that appear to increase cancer risk are?
1. fats
2. alcohol
3. salt-cured meats
4. smoked meats (ham)
5. nitrite containing foods
6. bacon
7. red and processed meats
Identify five substances produced by the immune system in response to cancer.
antibodies produced by B lymphocytes, lymphokines, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and T lymphocytes.
Toxicity occurs with radiation therapy. List three common side effects of the skin
1. alopecia
2. erythema
3. desquamation
Toxicity occurs with radiation therapy. List three common side effects of the oral muscosal membrane.
1. xerostomia
2. stomatitis
3. decreased salivation
4. loss of taste
Toxicity occurs with radiation therapy. List three common side effects of the stomach or colon.
1. anorexia
2. nausea
3. vomiting
4. diarrhea
Toxicity occurs with radiation therapy. List three common side effects of the bone marrow producing sites.
1. aneamia
2. leukopenia
3. thrombocytopenia
List nine signs that indicate that an extravasation of an infusion of a cancer chemotherapeutic agent has occurred.
1.redness
2. pain
3. swelling
4. mottled appearance
5. phlebitis
6. loss of blood return
7. resistance to flow
8. tissue necrosis
9. damage to underlying tendons, nerves, and blood vessels.
The two most common side effects of chemotherapy are _______ and _______-
nausea and vomiting
Myelosuppression, caused by chemotherapeutic aganets, results in ________, ___________, ________, __________ and an increased risk of _________ and ___________
Leucopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia; infection and bleeding.
Three chemotherapeutic agents that are particularly toxic to the renal system are _________, ______ and __________.
cisplatin, methotrexate, and mitramycin
Growth of new capillaries from the host tissue.
angiogenesis
Innate process of programmed cell death
apoptosis
The use of thermal energy to destroy cancer cells
radio-frequency ablation
Point at which blood counts are their lowest
Nadir
Target antibodies to destroy specific malignant cells
monoclonal antibodies
A substance that can cause tissue necrosis
Vesicant
A dry oral cavity caused by salivary gland dysfunction
Xerostomia
Sustances produced by the immune system cells to enhance the function of the immune system
cytokines
Is this neoplasm benign or malignant? Cells bear little resemblance to the normal cells of the tissue from which they arose.
malignant
Is this neoplasm benign or malignant? Rate of growth is usually slow.
Benign
Is this neoplasm benign or malignant? Tumor tissue is encapsulated
benign
Is this neoplasm benign or malignant? Tumor spreads by way of blood and lymph channels to other areas of the body.
Malignant
Is this neoplasm benign or malignant? Growth tends to recur when removed.
malignant
__________ is the growth of the primary tumor into surrounding host tissues in a variety of ways.
Invasion
_________ is the dissemination or direct spread of malignant cells to body cavities or through lymphatic and blood circulation.
Metastasis
True or false?

Primary prevention is concerned with reducing the risk or preventing the development of cancer in healthy people through health promotions strategies.
true
True or false?

Secondary prevention involves early detection and screening efforts to achieve early diagnosis and prompt intervention to halt the cancerous process.
true
Realizing that Kim's mother died breast cancer, the nurse correlates the course of kins diagnosis to?

a. environmental factors

b. genetics

c. dietary factors

d. chemical agents.
b
To assist Kim in adapting to the loss of her breast the nurse should assess Kim's?

a. attitude toward her body image

b. feelings of self esteem

c. social and sexual values

d. attitudes and values regarding all of the above.
d
Kim's husband refuses to participate in any discussion about his wife's diagnosis. The nurse realizes that he is using the defense mechanism of?

a. denial

b. depression

c. rationalization

d. repression
a
Postoperatively, Kim experiences severe incisional pain. The nurse realizes that kins perception of pain is possibly influenced by?

a. tissue manipulation during surgery

b. apprehension regarding the prognosis of her condition.

c. anger stemming from her change in body image

d. all of the above.
d
Kim is scheduled to begin radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy with 5 fluorouracil. Realizing the side effects of radiation therapy, the nurse should prepare kin for all of the following except?

a. her lungs may possibly produce more mucus.

b. the skin at the treatment area may become red and inflamed.

c. she may tire more easily and require additional rest periods

d. alopecia will occur as a result of the quickly growing hair follicles.
d
The nurse should teach Kim what she can do to protect her skin between radiation treatments. Measures include all of the following except?

a. handle the area gently

b. avoid irritation with soap and water

c. use a heat lamp once a day direct to the radiation site to promote tissue repair.

d. wear loose fitting clothing.
c
After radiation therapy, Kim begins a regimen of chemotherapy with 5 fluorouracil. Three weeks after treatment begins, Kim develops a fever, sore throat, and cold symptoms. The nurse knows that Kim's symptoms could be due to all of the following except?

a. hypercalcemia

b. bone marrow depression

c. altered nutrition

d. leukopenia
a
Nursing assessment during Kim's chemotherapy includes observation for?

a. evidence of stomatitis

b. renal and hepatic abnormalities

c. symptoms of infection owning to granulocytopenia

d. all the above.
d
Because infection is the leading cause of moratlity in the oncology population the nurse preoperatively notes the significance of a?

a. basophil count of 1.3%

b. Eosinophil count of 4.5%

c. Lymphocyte count of 23%

d. neutrophil count of 20%
d
The nurse is concerned that a patients nutritional status is compromised based on his recent weight loss. Impaired nutritional status contributes to?
1. disease progression
2. immune competence
3. increased incidence of infection
4. delayed tissue repair
5. diminished functional ability
Five factors that the nurse would assess to determine the patients experience with pain in order to develop a plan of care for pain management?
1. fear
2. apprehension
3. fatigue
4. anger
5. social isolation
The nurse knows that a diagnosis of cancer is accompanied by grieving. Usually, the first reaction in the grieving process is?
Denial
What are four activities the nurse can do to support the patient and family during the grieving process?
1. answer questions and concerns
2. identify resources and support persons
3. communicate and share concerns
4. help frame questions for the physician
The nurse knows that postoperative care needs to be directed toward the prevention of _______ the leading cause of death in cancer patients.
infection
Two major gram negative bacilli that cause infection in an immunosuppressed patient are?
1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2. Escherichia Coli
The nurse will also assess for the postoperative complication of septic shock, which is associated with all of the following except?

a. dysrthythmias

b. hypertension

c. metabolic acidosis

d. oliguria
b