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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain the nature vs. nurture issue
The nature/nurture issue involves the degree to which genetics and the environment influence human development. Theorist and researchers tend to view nature and nurture as mutually interactive and development is always shaped by both.
Explain the continuity-discontinuity issue.
The continuity-discontinuity issue concerns whether the same explanations (continuity) or different explanations (discontinutity) must be used to explain changes in people over time.
What is the biopsychosocial framework?
The combination of biological, psychological, sociocultural and life cycle foreces that form human development.
What is included in the biological forces that make up development?
prenatal development, brain maturation, puberty, menopause, etc. They provide the raw material necessary (genetics) and set the boundary contitions (general health) for development.
What is included in the psychological forces that make up development?
internal cognitive, emotional, personality, perceptual and related factors that influence behavior.
What are the sociocultural factors that make up development?
Parents, children, siblings, friends, teachers, coworkers, schools, TV, the these influence a person.
What is a theory?
In HD, a teory is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.
What are psychodynamic theories?
Psychodynamic theories propose that human behavior is largely governed by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious. Freud and Erik Erikson!
Who was Erik Erikson?
1902-1994 one of Freud's students who believed that development contiues thorughout life. Developed the psychosocial theory.
Who developed the psychosocial theory and what waas it?
Erik Erikson proposed that personality deveopment is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands.
What did B.F Skinner study?
operant conditioning in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future.
What were the two consequences that Skinner showed were influential?
1)reinforcements: a consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that is follows.

2)punishment: a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that is follows
What is the social learning theory?
People learn much by simply watching those around them. This is called imitation or observational learning.
What theory is Albert Bandura associated with?
the social cognitive theory
What is the social cognitive theory?
people actively try to understand what goes on in their world....along with reinforcement and punishment...what other people do is an important source of information about the world.
Who was Piaget?
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) proposed a cognitive developmental theory.
What was Piaget's cognitive developmental theory?
Piaget believed c hildren naturally try to make sense of their world. They create theories about the physical and social worlds.
What are the stages in Piaget's conitive development theory?
Sensorimotor (birth-2)
Preoperational thought (2 to 6)
Concrete operational though (7-early adolescence)
formal operational though (adolescence and beyond)
What was Kohlberg's theory?
The Moral reasoning theory...based on Piaget's theory. Go beyond adolescence.
What is the information-processing theory?
like a computer....hardware (brain) sofware (thoughts, emotion, etc.)
What was Vygotsky's Theory?
focused on ways that dults convey to children the beliefs, customs, and skills of their culture.
What is the ecological theory?
proposes that all aspects of development are interconnected.
What was Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological theory?
Included the microsystem (people and objects in an individual's immediate environment), mesosystem (contain all of the microsystem), exosystem (social settings that influence aperson...may not be directly a part of), and the macrosystem (subcultures and cultures in which the others reside)