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145 Cards in this Set

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Was Piaget a stage theorist?
Yes
Are you more likely to prove Piaget or Freud's theories?
Piaget
Does Piaget believe that infants must be able to interact with the external world in order to develop cognitively?
Yes
What is Piaget's first stage of development?
sensorimotor
In what Piaget stage does the child achieve object permanence?
sensorimotor
In what Piaget stage does the child develop symbolic thought?
pre-operational
In the pre-operational stage, is the child still egocentric?
Yes
What are the final two stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
concrete operational (7-11)
formal operational (11 and above--> not all ppl reach this stage)
Assimilation and Accomodation are how learning occurs according to ____
Piaget
Which theorist did the experiment with the Bobo doll?
Bandura, demonstrated social modeling
How is operant conditioning (skinner) different from unconditioned response?
In operant conditioning you must choose to do an action, whereas in unconditioned response you don't have to
Does behavorial development contribute to making it hard to quit smoking?
Yes
What is the biggest indicator of non-compliance?
Depression, can be thought of as learned helplessness
Kohlberg defines stages by morality. True or False?
True
According to Kohlberg men make it to what stage of the morality scale and women?
men = stage 4
women = stage 3
Kohlber's theory emphasizes _____ over other values
justice, this was a criticism of his theory by Gilligan
Is it true for Gilligan that changes in the sense of self rather than changes in cognitive ability drive the transitions between moral stages?
Yes
According to Gilligan, a woman giving up her career to raise her kids is part of what moral stage?
Convention, where self-sacrifice is good
What theorist posited that human language development was Nativist, that we naturally had a center for language in the brain?
Chomsky
Is there a sensitive/critical period for language development according to Chomsky even though he believed more in nature versus nuture?
Yes, his period is need to activated the language acquisition center in the brain
Is the corpus callosum bigger in men or women?
women
Does Piaget believe that language is a distinct part of cognition or does language development occur along with the child's general cognitive development?
Language occurs along with child's general cognitive development
Birth to 1 year is defined as the Pre-verbal period. True or False
True
Should you be concerned that there is no babbling or pointing/gestures in a child by 12 months?
Yes
By age 4 should 100% of speech be understandable from the child?
Yes
By what age should child say first word, achieve object permanence?
12 months (1 year)
Are nouns or verbs more common in stage 1 of speech development?
nouns
In what stage does use of syntax (word order) begin to occur for language development?
stage 2
In what stage of language development will there be more use of modifiers such as I want BLUE coat, rather than just I want coat?
stage 3 (2-3 yrs)
At what age should the child be able to tell you a story?
6-7 years old
What type of transmission happens between parent and child?
Vertical transmission which could be biological transmission or cultural transmission
The learning of cultural issues from peers is what type of cultural transmission?
horizontal
Teacher, adult, give you a sense of culture that isn’t typically a part of your view of life, but unlike your parents, they are only part of a subset of your culture. What type of cultural transmisson can this be?
oblique cultural transmission
Is enculturation part of your culture or another culture?
your culture, takes less learning, kinda comes with the territory
Teaching people what is appropriate in a cultural setting is _____
Gender is a good ex.
socialization
This process involves cultural and behavioral changes brought out through contact with those belonging to other cultures who many exhibit different behaviors
acculturation
Does enculturation or acculturation occur first usually?
enculturation
What percentage of Americans speak a language other than English in the home?
13%
Are factors proximal or distal to clinical processes more likely to create better treatment efficacy?
proximal
According to Freud, which of the following structures of the mind are completely developed in a normal 1 year old child?
Id only
Do Muslims or Jewish people usually eat pork?
No
Infants cannot vocalize until ___ weeks
8
Stranger anxiety develops around what month?
8 months
A hearing test should be given to a child if they are not saying 2 word phrases by age ___
2
Does Piaget believe that the 4 stages of child development is genetic or an active construction driven process?
active construction driven process
________--> tug of war between assimilation (taking information in) and accomodation (you have to change to fit into new challenge)
assimilation
________--> changing your internal way of thinking about things in order to adapt and learn
accommodation
____ occurs as a result of assimilation and accommodation
adaptation
During what years is a child in concrete operations?
7-11 years
Animism--> ascribing life to inanimate objects occurs in what stage of Piaget's developmental theory?
pre-operational
Trust vs. Mistrust is what stage according to Erikson?
Infancy
Kids should develop gender identity by 2.5 to 3 years. True of False?
True
What type of morality has grade school kids developed according to Kohlberg?
conventional morality
Symbolic thought begins to develop at what age?
18 months
For adolescents are peers or parents the fundamental influence in their lives?
more likely peers
Identity vs. Role Confusion happens in what phase of life according to Erikson?
adolescence
Inattention and hyperactivity can lead to a diagnosis of what?
ADHD/ADD
Suicide is the ____ leading cause of death for adolescents
3rd
torturing animals is common manifestation of _____ disorder
conduct
Between 25-50% of antisocial children become antisocial adults. True or False?
True
What is the mean onset age of anorexia?
17 years
Among African American men aged 25-44, what is the leading cause of death?
HIV/AIDS
What is the biggest challenge of young adulthood from ages 19-40 years old according to Erikson
commitment, development of intimacy
Confidence in ability to perform an action is known as ____
self-efficacy
You are defined to be in menopause after absence of menstration for __ year
one
Ego Integrity vs. Despair characterizes what stages for Erikson?
65 years till death
The testing stage happens between what two stages according to Kubler-Ross
Depression and acceptance
Development of Mullerian duct leads to the development of what sex?
female
Is Gender Identity or Gender Role influenced by differential exposure to pre-natal sex hormones and genetic influences?
Gender Identity
So stimulants such as amphetamines and cocain increase sexual interest and performance?
yes, by stimulating dopaminergic systems
Do seratonin increase or decrease sexual interest?
decrease, therefore SSRIs can decrease sexual interest
Is it true that with treatment with SSRIs, there could be increased incidence of orgasmic disorder?
Yes
Is cigarette smoking or alcohol intake more likely to affect sexual function?
alcohol intake
Someone who acts peculiar or avoids social relationships but is not psychotic suffers from what cluster of personality disorder?
Cluster A
Can antisocial personality disorder be diagnosed before 18 years of age?
No, prior to age 18, the diagnosis is conduct disorder
What is the expression of gender in the social context?
Gender role
What disorder is consistent with persistent identity with other gender?
gender identity disorder
A person is said to suffer from a ____ when they have repetitive, often distressing sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors
paraphilia
What is the most commom paraphilia?
pedophilia
The squeeze technique can be used in treatment of what sexual dysfunction?
premature ejaculation
Dyspareunia is more commonly seen in men or women?
women
Which racial group is most likely to due from breast cancer?
African American
Which racial group is most likely to suffer from diabetes?
American Indian/Alaska Native
Since 2004, what among black women ages 25-34 is the leading cause of death?
HIV
Which racial group is most affected by new syphilis infections?
African-American
Which racial group is most likely to be infected with Hepatitis?
Asian Americans
Which racial group accounts for the most reported cases of TB?
Asian Americans
Is the suicide rate higher or lower in African Americans compared to whites?
lower
Diabetes is highest in what subgroup of Asians?
Hawaiians
Do Asians suffer from a higher level of acculturative stress?
Yes
Among what racial group is there higher levels of cervical cancer and smoking?
Hispanics
Is there more or less smoking with acculturation among Latinos?
more
Which group suffers the most from acute alcholism?
Native Americans
How much higher are suicide rates for Native American teens compared to whites?
4X
Are African American women more or less likely to be prescribed HAART?
less likely
1 in ___ Americans have a diagnosable mental disorder each year
2
About what percentage of children get help from suffering from a mental disorder?
1/3
What is the #1 disabling health condition worldwide?
depression
Are African Americans more or less likely to receive the diagnosis of schizophrenia than Caucasians/white?
more
Are non-whites and women more or less likely to be medicated for mental disorders?
more
Are men or women more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia?
men
Is Autism more severe in boys or girls usually?
girls
How is Asperger's different from Austism?
No significant language delay
Later age on of onset
Below what level does a person suffer from mild mental retardation?
70
Do you need a specially trained person to interpret a projective personality test?
Yes
The Vineland Social Maturity Scale is the most appropriate test for evaluating the self-care skills of mentally retarded individuals. True or False?
True
Systematic desensitization is usually used in the treatment of ____
phobias
When a 35 year old smoker is given an electric shock each time he is shown a videotape of a group of people smoking he is being treated with ___ conditioning
aversive
Are triangles good or bad in the family?
bad, these are dysfunctional alliances between two family members against a third family member
Is family therapy most effective for treating anorexia nervosa?
Yes
Biofeedback is a form of ___ conditioning
operant
Is it true that white men 65 years and older are more likely to committ suicide than any other group?
yes
An infant should be able to say mama, dada or other names by ___ months
18
People with what mental disorder are most likely to use illegal substances?
bipolar disorder
Nearly every recreational drug has an effect on the _____ pathway
dopamine
Nicotine affects what neurotransmitter?
acetylcholine
Alcohol activates the release of what neurotransmitter?
GABA, alcohol is a depressant
Delirium Tremens is caused by a ____ deficit
dopamine
caused by the intake of alcohol
similar to symptoms of Parkinsons
Over time does alcohol abuse cause an upregulation or downregulation of GABA receptors? How does this contribute to the symptoms of withdrawal?
alcohol causes a downregulation of GABA receptors. once you take away alcohol the sedative/inhibitory effects of alcohol are lost and therefore the brain becomes overly excited due to lack of inhibitory GABA receptors, this causes withdrawal seizures
Which NT contributes to the high of intoxication?
seratonin
How does cocaine affect the dopamine pathway?
cocaine inhibits the reuptake of dopamine, hence causing an accumulation of dopamine at synaptic terminales
What is the most commonly used illegal drug?
marijuana
Does caffeine dilate or constrict your blood vessels?
dilate, that's why caffeine can sometimes relieve headaches, and withdrawal can cause headaches
Are white women more or less likely to report domestic violence abuse compared to african american women?
less likely
Are divorced or separated people more or less likely to experience intimate partner victimization compared to never married people?
more
Isolation is a big social consequence of persistent abuse seen in ____
children
What is the difference between fighting and abuse?
In fighting the two people have equal power
With abuse, one of the people have more power than the other, either physical or financial power
Is dopamine associated with increased or decreased agression? What about GABA and seratonin?
increased
decreased
What is Kleptomania?
impulse to take things without paying for them despite the fact that they are affordable
associated with bulimina nervosa patients, have a hard time controlling urges
What drugs may be useful in treating impulsive and aggressive behavior?
SSRIs, because aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with decreased serotonergic function
Are injuries in the buttocks or back a sign that the child may be a victim of abuse?
Yes, because these injuries are less likely to be obtained during play
Is direct reporting by the physician of domestic partner abuse appropriate if the victim is a competent adult?
No, physician should document abuse, but cannot make decision for the abused
Sedatives usually work by increasing the activity of what NT?
GABA
Stimulants work by increasing the availability of ___ in the synapse
dopamine
Intense hunger is seen in withdrawal from ____
amphetamines
Elevated levels of cotinine suggests the person is an abuser of what?
smoking
Symbolic thought develops during what stage according to Piaget?
pre-operational
Is thinking still egocentric in the pre-operational years?
Yes
Social smiling should be seen at what month?
2 months
At 18 months should the child be displaying single or multiword phrases?
multiword phrases begin to develop
trouble is seen if single word statements do not develop
At about what age does Mahler's stage of rapproachment occur?
18 months
Cooperative play begins at about what age?
4
At what age does a child begin to understand the finality of death?
6
What percentage of children are termed difficult children?
10%
Do children in the pre-operational stage benefit from role playing medical procedures?
Yes