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73 Cards in this Set

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Vocabulary:
(Federal Grants)
1. Grants in Aid
Programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government.

(Congress appropriates money to state and local governments on the condition that the money be spent for a particular purpose defined by Congress.)
(Federal Grants)
2. Categorical Grants
Congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law.

(Federal grants-in-aid, in which the national government determines the purposes, or categories, for which the money can be used.)
(Federal Grants)
3. Unfunded Mandates
Regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government.

(Regulations or new conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the national government.)
(New Federalism)
4. Block Grants
Federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent.

(Federal grants that allow the states considerable leeway in spending federal money.)
(New Federalism)
5. (General) Revenue Sharing
The process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula. Revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to state governments.

(Federal assistance to state and local governments which provided money to local governments and counties with no strings attached; localities could spend the money as they wished.)
(New Federalism)
6. Devolution
A policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments.

(Returning more power to the states by allowing them to pass laws which previously was from the federal government to the state or local government.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
7. Expressed Powers
Specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8), and to the President (Article II).

(17 powers including the power to collect taxes, to coin money, to declare war, and to regulate commerce.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
8. Implied Powers
Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.

(Enabling Congress "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers.")
(Regular Vocabulary)
9. Necessary & Proper Clause
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, it provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers.
(Regular Vocabulary)
10. Reserved Powers
Powers, derived from the 10th Amendment, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states.

(Also referred to as the 10th Amendment because it aims to reserve powers to the states.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
11. Concurrent Powers
Authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes.

(Where the states and national government share some power to regulate commerce and to affect the currency, such as to charter banks, grant or deny corporate charters, grant or deny licenses to engage in a business or practice a trade, and regulate the quality of products or the condition of labor.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
12. Full Faith & Credit Clause
Provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution, requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.

(Obligations among the states, to recognize actions and decisions taken in other states as legal and proper, which is designed to promote national unity.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
13. Home Rule
Power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs.

(A guarantee of noninterference in various areas of local affairs, added by most states to their constitutions to give their larger cities more freedom to act in local matters.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
14. Dual Federalism
The system of government that prevailed in the U.S. from 1789 - 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments.

(2 layers of government (national and state) created by the Constitution.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
15. Devolution (no you aren't "tripping out" this is on here 2x)
A policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments.

(Returning more power to the states by allowing them to pass laws which previously was from the federal government to the state or local government.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
16. Dual Federalism (this is too)
The system of government that prevailed in the U.S. from 1789 - 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments.

(2 layers of government (national and state) created by the Constitution.)
(Regular Vocabulary)
17. Cooperative Federalism
A type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localitites (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as "intergovernmental cooperation."

(After the New Deal, historians suggest that instead of dual federalism, this could be called cooperative federalism; some categorize this as a move from a "layer-cake federalism" to a "marble-cake federalism".)
(Regular Vocabulary)
18. Regulated Federalism
A form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards.

(The national government began to set standards of conduct or required the states to set standards that met national guidelines. The effect of these national standards is that state and local policies in teh areas of environmental protection, social services, and education are more uniform from coast to coast than are other nationally funded policies.)
(Chapter 3 Federalism)
19. Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
(Chapter 3 Federalism)
20. Unitary System
A centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government.
(Chapter 3 Federalism)
21. Federal System
A system of government in which the national government shares power with lower levels of government, such as states.
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
22. Annapolis Convention (1786)
Convened in 1786 in Annapolis Maryland, yet only delegates from 5 states attended, was the 1st step to the second founding, but all that was accomplished was just a desire to improve and reform the Articles
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
23. Shay's Rebellion
Daniel Shays, a former army captain, led a mob of farmers in a rebellion against the government of Massachusetts, in order to prevent foreclosures on their debt-ridden land by keeping the county courts of western Massachusetts from sitting until after the next election
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
24. Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia (1787)
Convened in May 1787 in Philadelphia, decided to abandon revising the Articles and create a new effective national system of government, this lasted 5 months
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
25. The Great Compromise
The agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population (the 1st branch of Congress (The House of Representatives) would be apportioned by how many people were in each state, which is what the larger states wanted; but in the 2nd branch (The Senate) each state would have an equal vote regardless of its size, which is what the small states were asking for), and was accepted after some resistance by some smaller states.
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
26. 3/5's Compromise
The agreement reached at the Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person (the number of representatives would be apportioned according to five slaves would count as three free persons)
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
27. Federalist Papers
A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution.

(85 essays written under the name "Publius" in 1787 - 1788, defending the principles of the (new) Constitution and sought to dispel fears of a national authority.)
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
28. Ratification
The Federalists supported the Constitution and a stronger national government. The Antifederalists, on the other hand, preferred a more decentralized system of government and fought against ratification.
(The 2nd Founding Highlights)
29. Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments
(4 Ways to Amend the Constitution)
30. First Way
Passage by Congress 2/3 vote of both houses, 3/4 of the state legislatures.
(4 Ways to Amend the Constitution)
31. Second Way
Passage by Congress 2/3 vote of both houses, 3/4 of state constitution conventions.
(4 Ways to Amend the Constitution)
32. Third Way
Passage by National Convention in response to 2/3 of the states; 3/4 of the states.
(4 Ways to Amend the Constitution)
33. Fourth Way
Passage by National Convention in response to 2/3 of the states; 3/4 of state conventions.
(4 Ways to Amend the Constitution)
34. The second way has been used only 1 time, for what amendment?
21st amendment in order to repeal prohibition.
(Vocabulary)
35. Judicial Review
The power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury vs. Madison.

(Not in the Constitution, the power of the courts to render the final decision when there is a conflict of interpretation of the Constitution or of laws between the courts and Congress, the courts and the executive branch, or the courts and the states. The Supreme Court eventually assumed the power of judicial review.)
(Know the Date)
36. The Boston Tea Party occured in what year?
1773
(Know the Date)
37. In what year did the Declaration of Independence take effect?
1776
38. The first Constitution of the U.S., what was the name, year ratified, and when did it end?
Name - The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual State

Year Ratified - 1781

Year Ended - 1789
(Vocabulary)
39. Confederation
A system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for powers delegated to national government.
40. Name 6 problems with the Confederation:
1. Weak National Government
2. No president
3. Government vested in one group - The Congress
4. Members were delegates from the states
5. No power for an army, had state militias
6. No control over state to state relations
(Chapter 2)
41. Name the 5 Sectors of society with interest in colonial politics:
1. New England Merchants
2. Southern Planters
3. Royalist - holders of land, offices, and patents
4. Shop Keepers, Artisans, and Laborers
5. Small Farmers
(Chapter 2)
42. Name 3 conditions in the colonies that brought about the founding of a new Country:
1. Political Strife
2. Taxation from British without representation
3. Financial problems with the British
(The Different Forms of Government)
43. Autocracy
Single Individual Rule
(The Different Forms of Government)
44. Oligarchy
Small Groups Rule
(The Different Forms of Government)
45. Democracy
Citizens play a significant role in the process usually through the election of key officials.
(The Different Forms of Government)
46. Constitutional Government
System of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government.
(The Different Forms of Government)
47. Authoritarian Government
Government recognizes no formal limits, and may be restrained by social institutions.
(The Different Forms of Government)
48. Totalitarian
No formal limits and seeks to eliminate or absorb any opposition.
(The Different Forms of Government)
49. Politics
Conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies.
(The Different Forms of Government)
50. Representative Democracy
Voting public selects representatives.
(The Different Forms of Government)
51. Direct Democracy
Citizens vote directly for law policies.
(The Different Forms of Government)
52. Pluralism; Result
All interests should be free to compete for Government influence; and the result is compromise and moderation.
(Vocabulary)
53. Equality of Opportunity
Freedom to use talents and wealth to reach the fullest potential.
(Vocabulary)
54. Political Equality
"One person, one vote."
(Vocabulary)
55. Public Trust
Has fallen since the 1960's to the current 27% (current as of the time of publishing).
(Vocabulary)
56. Political Culture
Broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function.
(Vocabulary)
57. Political Efficacy
The ability to influence government.
(Vocabulary)
58. Citizenship
Informed and active membership in a political community.
(Vocabulary)
59. Greek Citizenship
Public discussion, debate, and activity to improve the community.
60. What are 2 keys essential for good citizenship?
Knowledge and Participation
61. What is Government?
Institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled.
(Essay Question #1)
What is Political Culture?
1. American PC emphasizes the values of liberty, equality, and democracy.

2. The Declaration of Independence defined 3 inalienable rights: “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

3. The Constitution says, “the blessings of liberty” as a main reason for drawing up the Constitution

4. Liberty means both personal freedom and economic freedom, and both are linked to the idea of limited government. (4 - 6)

5. The Bill of Rights, the 1st 10 amendments, preserve individual personal liberties and rights: freedom of speech and writing, the right to assemble freely, and the right to practice religious beliefs without interference from the government.

6. Since the Founding, economic freedom has been linked to capitalism (free competition), free markets (unfettered movement of goods), and the protection of private property (the right to enjoy the fruits of one’s labor).

7. With Equality, the Declaration of Independence declares, “All men are created equal.” (7 - 8)

8. Political Equality means that members of the American political community have the right to participate in politics on equal terms; “one person, one vote” is a summary of where we stand today concerning PC

9. Democracy, its essence is the participation of the people in choosing their rulers and the people’s ability to influence what they do; political power ultimately comes from the people.

10. Popular Sovereignty – placing power in the hands of the people.

11. Popular sovereignty and political equality make politicians accountable to the people, a key ingredient of democracy.

12. Ideally, democracy envisions an engaged citizenry prepared to exercise its power over rulers.

13. Majority Rule, Minority Rights – majority rule means that the wishes of the majority determine what the government does.
(Essay Question #1)
What is needed by the population for good citizenship?
1. What is considered Good Citizenship?

2. Political Efficacy – the ability to influence government and politics

3. Without any efforts, the decision will be made by a smaller and smaller circle of powerful people, which undermines government by the people

4. It is essential to our political ideals that all citizens be informed and able to act

5. Citizens who understand how politics affect them are more active in politics because they know how to act on what they are interested in

6. Effective participation requires knowledge, if you don’t know how politics works, or what is going on, how can you participate intelligently?

7. Political knowledge includes knowing the limits on, as well as the possibilities for pursuing, your individual interests through political action

8. Voting is the most important aspect of being a good citizen.
(Essay Question #1)
What are the effects of changing Political Culture on the government?
1. The effects of changing PC on the government, what are they?

2. Everything that happens in society effects the government in one way or another, and concerning PC, there is a lot:
(Essay Question #2)
A little history on Daniel Elazar and his widely used political culture classification:
Daniel Elazar has created a classification scheme for state political culture that is used widely.

He uses the concepts of moralistic, individualistic, and traditionalistic to describe such cultures.

These three state political cultures are contemporary manifestations of the ethnic, socioreligious, and socioeconomic differences that existed among the original 13 colonies.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Explain them in detail, and what they mean, where they originated #1 is Moralitic Political Cultures:
Moralitic Political Cultures – were rooted in New England, where Puritans and other religious groups sought to create the Good Society.

In such a culture, politics is the concern of everyone and government is expected to intervene in promoting the public good and in advancing the public welfare.

Citizen participation in politics is viewed as positive; people are encouraged to pursue the public good in civic activities.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Explain them in detail, and what they mean, where they originated #2 is Individualistic Political Cultures:
Individualistic Political Cultures – originated in the middle states, where Americans sought material wealth and personal freedom through commercial activities.

Places a low value on citizen participation in politics.

Politics is a matter for professionals rather than for citizens, and the role of government is strictly limited.

Government’s role is to ensure stability so that individuals can pursue their own interests.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Explain them in detail, and what they mean, where they originated #3 is Traditionalistic Political Culture:
Traditionalistic Political Culture – developed initially in the South, reflecting the values of the slave plantation economy and its successor, the Jim Crow era.

Rooted in preindustrial values that emphasize social hierarchy and close interpersonal, often familial, relations among people, traditional culture is concerned with the preservation of tradition and the existing social order.

In such states, public participation is limited and government is run by an established elite.

Public policies disproportionately benefit the interests of those elites.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Identify Texas:
Texas is categorized as having a “traditionalistic individualistic” political culture.

Taxes are kept low, and social services are minimized.

Political elites, such as business leaders, have a major voice in how the state is run.

The concept of political culture is a concept widely regarded as useful in explaining fundamental beliefs about the state and the role of state government.

Texas has many different political cultures or subcultures within its borders.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Name the 3 patterns of Texas State politics that cause Texas to be identified this way that it is, #1 is The One-Party State:

Three long-lasting patterns in Texas politics seem to indicate a “traditionalistic individualistic” state political culture. These patterns relate to a domination of the state by political elites interested in limited government with low taxes and few social services. It is also the case that at least some of these lasting characteristics of state politics are undergoing rapid change. These 3 patterns of state politics are described below:
The One-Party State – For over 100 years, Texas was dominated by the Democratic Party.

This pattern no longer holds, though, as during the 1990’s, substantial competition emerged between the parties for control of the state legislature.

Following redistricting in 2002, the Republicans secured a 7-vote majority in the state Senate and a 24-vote majority in the state House.

By 2002, all major statewide elected offices were controlled by Republicans.

The question today is not whether the political culture of Texas will continue to be defined by a powerful Democratic Party, but how that culture will be redefined by 2 forces: a now powerful Republican Party and a resurgent Democratic Party.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Name the 3 patterns of Texas State politics that cause Texas to be identified this way that it is, #2 is Provincialism:
Provincialism – A second pattern that has defined Texas political culture is provincialism, a narrow view of the world that is often associated with rural values and Jeffersonian notions (economically independent sharing common interests) of limited government.

The result often was an intolerance of diversity and a notion of the public interest that dismissed social services and expenditures for education.

Some of the more popular politicians in Texas have stressed intolerance, and a narrow worldview rather than policies that might offer advantages to the state as it competes with other states and with other nations.

Like the one-party Democratic state, Texas provincialism has faded as a defining feature of the political culture.

The growing influence of minorities, women, and gays in state politics and the ongoing urbanization of the state have undercut provincialism.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
Name the 3 patterns of Texas State politics that cause Texas to be identified this way that it is, #3 is Business Dominance:
Business Dominance – A 3rd, continuing pattern is its longtime dominance by business.

Labor unions are rare in Texas except in the oil-refinery areas around Beaumont-Port Arthur.

Other groups that might offer an alternative to a business perspective, such as consumer interests, are poorly organized and funded.

Business groups are major players in Texas politics, in terms of campaign contributions, organized interest groups, and lobbyists.
(Essay Question #2)
Discuss the 3 Political
Culture’s as identified by Daniel Elazar.
As an afterthought:
Low levels of voting characterize these cultures.

In a traditionalistic political culture, the political and economic elite discourages voting.

People choose not to vote in individualistic cultures because of real or perceived corruption in government.