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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organizations that seek to achieve power by winning public office
political parties
system in which competitive parties adopt a plateform of principles, recruting candidates and directing campaigns based on the platform, and holding their elected officials responsible for enacting it.
responsible party platform
the tendency of the Democratic Party to take more liberal positions and the Republican Party to take more conservative positions on key issues
party polarization
political party's entry in a general election race
polical party's slection of its candidate for a public office
tightly disciplined party organization, headed bye a boss, that relies on material rewards - including patronage jobs - to control politics
appointment to public office based on party loyalty
one party controls the presidency while the other party controls one or both houses of Congress
divided party government
elections in which candidates do not officially indicate their party affiliation, often used for city, country, school board, and judicial elections
nonpartisan elections
nominating process in which party leaders select the party's nominee
division of a city for electoral or administrative purposes or as a unit for organizing political parties
subdivision of a city, county, or ward for election purposes
primary elections in which voters must declare (or have previously declared) their party affiliation and can cast a ballot only in their own party's election
closed primary
primary election in which a voter may cast a ballot in either party's primary election
open primary
organized efforts by one party to get its members to cross over in a primary and defeat an attractive candidate in the oppositions party's primary
additonal primary held between the top two vote-getters in a primary in wich no candidate has recieved a majority of the vote
runoff primary
election to choose among candidates nominated by parties and/or independent candidates who gained access to the ballot by petition
general election
nominating process in which delegates from local party organizations select the party's nominees
primary elections in the states in which voters in each party can choose a presidential candidate for its party's nomination. Outcomes help determine the distribution of pledged delegates to each party's national nominating convention
presiendtial primaries
accredited voting members of a party's national presidential nominating convention
statement of principles adopted by a political party at its national convention (specific portions of the platform are known as planks); a platformis not bindingon the party's candidates
self-described identification with a political party
party identification
declining attractiveness of the parties to the voters, a reluctance to identify strongly with a party, and a decrease in reliance on party affiliation in voter choice
long-term shift in social-group support for various political parties that creates new coalitions in each party
electoral system that allocates seats in a legislature based on the proportion of votes each party receives in a national election
proportional representation
organizations seeking to directly influence government policy
interest group
tendency of democratic governments to allow the faint preferences of the majority to prevail over the intense feelings of minorities
society encrusted with so many special benefits to interest groups that everyon'e standard of living is lowered
organizatoinal sclerosis
interest groups composed of businesses in specific industries
trade associations
interest groups that claim to represent broad classes of people or the public as a whole
public-interest groups
organizations formed to support or oppose government action on a specific issue
single-issue groups
interest groups that pursue ideolgicially based (liberal or conservative) agendas
ideological organiztions
person working to influence government policies and actions
activities directed at government officials with the hope of influencing their decisions
building and maintaining goodwill with the general public
public relations
meeting and talking with decision makers, a prerequisite to direct persuasion
attempts to influence government decision making by inspring consituents to contact their representatives
grassroots lobbying
a joining together of interest groups (or indivduals) to achieve a common goal
giving or offering anything of value in an effort to influence government officals in the performance of their duties
mutually supportive relastionships among interest groups, government agencies, and legislative committees with jurisdictions over a specific policy area
iron triangles
the movement of individuals from government positions to jobs in the private sector, using the experience knowledge, and contacts they acquired in government employment
revolving doors
legal disupute brought before a court
person or group other than the defendant of the plantiff or the prosecution that submits an argument in a case for the courts consideration
amicus curiae