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25 Cards in this Set

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a constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and subnational governments, each of which enforces its own laws directly on its citizens and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other
federalism
consitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national government, subnational governments have only those powers given to them by the national government
unitary system
constutional arrangment whereby the national government is created by and relies on subnational governments for its authority
confederation
power of local government to pass laws affecting local affairs, so long as those laws do not conflict with state or federal laws
home rule
network of political, financial, and administrative relationships between units of the federal government and those of state and local governments
intergovernmental relations
a reference to the ability of states to experiment and innovate in public policy
laboratories of democracy
powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the national government
delegated, or enumerated, powers
clause in Article 1, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to enact all lawas that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out those responsibilities specifically delegated to it. Aslo referred to as the Implied Powers Clause
Necessary and Proper Clause
powers not mentioned specifically in the Constitution as belonging to Congress but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated powers
implied powers
clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution declaring the constitution and laws of the national government "the supreme law of the land" superior to the constitutions of the laws of the states
National Supremacy Clause
powers exercised by both the national government and state governments in the American federal system
concurrent powers
powers not granted to the national government or specifically denied to the states in the Constitution that are recognized by the Tenth Amendment as belonging to the state governments. This guarantee, known as the Reserved Powers Clause, embodies the principle of American federalism
reserved powers
early concept of federalism in which national and state powers were clearly distinguished and functionally separate
duel federalism
model of federalism in which national, state, and local governments work together exercising common policy responsibilities
cooperative federalism
model of federalsim in which the national government assumes primary responsibility for determining national goals in all major policy areas and directs state and local government activity through conditions attached to money grants
centralized federalism
attempts to return power and responsibility to the states and reduce the role of the national government in domestic affairs
new federalism
assertion that no constitutional division of power exists between the nation and the states but the states retain their constituional role merely by selecting the president and memebers of congress
representational federalism
payments of funds from the national government to state or local government or from a state government to local government to governments for specific purposes
grants-in-aid
passing down of responsibilities from the national government to the states
devolution
total or partial federal assumption of power in a particular field, restricting the authority of the states
preemption
federal government's assumption of all regulatory powers in a particular field
total preemption
federal government's assumption of some regulatory powers in a particular field, with the stipluation that a state law on the same subject as a federal law is vaild if it does not conflict with the federal law in the same area
partial preemption
form of partial preemption in which the states are permitted to regulate activities already regulated by the federal government if the state regulatory standards are at least as stringent as the federal governments
standard partial preemption
perception of popular support for a program or policy based on the margin of electoral victory won by a candidate who proposed it during a campaign, direct federal orders to state and local governments requiring them to perform a service or to obey federal laws in the performance of their functions
mandate
mandates that impose costs on state and local governments (and private industry) without reimbursement from the federal government
unfunded mandates