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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Which of the following immunoglobulins is described by the following chain composition: epsilon heavy chain, no subclasses, and kappa or lambda light chain?

1. IgG
2. IgA
3. IgE
4. IgD
5. IgM
Answer: 3. IgE
How many base pairs correlate to two turns in a DNA helix?
A)31
B)23
C)17
D)12
Answer: B) 23 (see ch. 5 slide 29)
In some cases, when an antigen binds to an antibody conformational changes occur in the in antibody.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
pg. 92-93 text
Which of the following gene segments are present on the heavy chain gene?
I. V
II. D
III. J
IV. C
V. H

. I, II, III, V
B. I, II, IV, V
C. II, III, IV, V
D. I, II, III, IV
E. II, IV, V
Answer is D
As discussed in lecture, which one of the following is NOT a benefit to the human monoclonal antibody Infliximab, trade name Remicade?

A. It is a monoclonal antibody for a cytokine that induces and supports the inflammatory response
B. When Remicade is cloned, it is most importatnt that that it contain the CDR of the human and the rest from the mouse
C. Largely used for the treament for Rheumatoid Arthritis
D. It is a chimeric antibody- a combination of mouse and human antibody
Answer B. Directly from slide 66-67 in Ch 4.
selection A referring to TNF-alpha
Signal sequences having one turn spacer can only join with sequences having a ---------turn spacer?

a. 1
b. 2
c. both 1 & 2
d. neither
Ans. b
Which of the following is LEAST true regarding IgA?
a. IgA constitutes 10%-15% of the total immunoglobulin in serum
b. The daily production of secretory IgA is greater than that of any other immunoglobulin class
c. IgA is responsible for the symptoms of asthma
d. Transport of the receptor-IgA complex to the lumen involves receptor-mediated endocytosis
Answer is C (that would be IgE)
Which of the following are properties of immunogens that contribute to immunogenicity?

a) Foreigness
b) Solubility
c) Chemical composition
d) Molecular charge
e) a and c
**Answer: E
Most IgG antibodies are found in the:
a.) alpha globulin fraction
b.) beta globulin fraction
c.) gamma globulin fraction
d.) albumin
answer: c
Brief digestion of IgG with the proteolytic enzyme papain produced how many fragments?
a.) 1
b.) 3
c.) 8
d.) 12
answer: b
____________ macromolecules are generally more immunogenic (able to induce a humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to a larger extent) than ____________ ones.

1) Large, soluble ; small, insoluble
2) Large, insoluble ; small, soluble
3) Small, soluble ; large, insoluble
4) Small, insoluble ; large, soluble
2
How many fragments more would one have if one exposed IgG to papain digestion instead of pepsin digestion?

a) same amount of fragments
b) 2
c) 1
d) 0
e) 3
Answer: c
Calculate the variability for position 6, if 100 heavy chains are analyzed and alanine is found in this position 26% of the time, while serine is found in this position 46% of the time, with serine being the most common amino acid in that position. The other amino acids found in position 6 are tyrosine, histidine, and glutamine.
A) 3.2
B) 8.0
C) 4.9
D) 8.7
E) 9.6
Answer is D (# of different AA's found in given position / Frequency of most common amino acid in given position)

In this case, ( 5 / 0.46 ) = 8.69
The D region in heavy chain of antibodies are only 3 amino acids long. Why is such a short amino acid sequence important to antibody structure?

A. It contains a restriction site in which cleavage takes place.
B. It is the region that forms a disulfide bond with the light chain.
C. It makes up part of the complimentary determining region (CDR)
D. It is not important; it is simply a vestigial piece of protein.
Answer: C
Most antibodies are located in which fraction of serum?

a) alpha globulin
b) beta globulin
c) gamma globulin
d) plasma
Answer: gamma globulin
In which group of antigenic determinants are antibodies generated in response to variable region?

a) isotope
b) isotype
c) allotype
d) idiotype
e) subtype
Answer: D (Idiotype)
Which of the following subclasses of Immunoglobulin G plays an important role in protecting the develping fetus and crosses the placenta readily?
A. IgG1
B. IgG2
C. IgG3
D. IgG4
E. A,C,D
F. A,B,C
G All of the Above
H. None of the Above
Answer: E
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant class of antibody molecules, where is it found?
a) Y-globulin fraction of the serum
b) alpha fraction of the serum
c) beta fraction of the serum
d) All of the above
Answer: All of the above
Which of the following is TRUE of IgE?

(1) It is secreted by plasma cells as a pentamer.
(2) Binding of this secretory molecule to bacterial and viral surface antigens prevents attachment of pathogens to the mucosal cells.
(3) This immunoglobulin is membrane-bound and expressed by mature B cells.
(4) Cross-linkage of these molecules by antigen (allergen) induces a process called degranulation.
(5) It is present in high average serum concentration.
Answer: (4)
Two-turn recombination signal sequences have intervening sequences ____ base pairs long.

a. 12
b. 23
c. 64
d. 8
e. 16
Answer: b
Which of the following heavy chains lacks a hinge region?

I. Alpha
II. Delta
III. Epsilon
IV. Gamma
V. Mu

A. I and III
B. I, III, V
C. II and IV
D. III and V
Answer: D
Generation of antibody response is dependent on all of the following except:

(a) specificity
(b) affinity
(c) half-life of antibody
(d) production rate
(e) all of the above are involved in generation of antibody response
Ans: e
All of the following are characteristics of the IgM antibody isotype except:
A) There are 10 antigen binding sites on IgM and it has a higher valency than other isotypes
B) IgM is secreted as a pentamer and its monomeric units are held together by disulfide bonds
C) 5-10% of serum Ig is accounted for by IgM
D) More secretory IgM is produced per day than any other Ig class
E) IgM is the first antibody produced in response to antigen
Correct Answer: D (More secretory IgA is produced per day than any other Ig class)
The V and C genes, while in the embryo, are separated by a large DNA segment that contains a _____ site.

A) Ab
B) alpha
C) VC
D) RE
Answer: D Ch. 5 lecture, Slide 15
Antibodies to what determinant can also arise from a blood transfusion?
a. Isotype
b. Allotype
c. Idiotype
Answer is b. Allotype
How many B cells progress to maturity and exit the bone marrow as mature immuno-competent B cells?

a) 1/9 (11%)
b) 1/99 (1.01%)
c) 1/999 (<1%)
d) 1/5 (20%)
e) 1/2 (50%)
Correct answer is a, as it is stated in the notes on the chapter 5, slide 49.
What is the one-turn two-turn rule with regards to Recombination Signal Sequences?
A: Signal sequences having one turn spacer can only join with sequences having a two turn spacer
The immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta is:

1) IgA
2) IgM
3) IgG and IgM
4) IgG
(4) is the correct answer. (if you really want to be technical, according to Table 4-4, IgG2 sometimes won't cross the placenta).
Which of the following produce variability in the variable-region during DNA rearrangements:
A. Rag1/Rag2 mediated recombination V, D, and J coding sequences
B. single-strand endonuclease randomly cleaving hairpin for addition of P-region nucleotides
C. terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase adding N-region nucleotides
D. All of the above.
Answer is D. all of the above.
Obviously the rearrangement that Rag1/Rag2 mediates to produce multiple combination of VDJ sequnces produces some variability, but the variability is also produced by the random actions of the single-strand endonuclease and terminal deoxynulceotidyl transferase when deleting as the later does and adding nucleotides as the former does to portions of coding DNA.
The "J" in J chain in the context of polynumeric antibody structure stands for what?
a. Joining
b. Juxaposed
c. Joint
d. James-Bond
A.) Joining
Epitope binding proteins are:

a) immunologically active regions of an immunogen that binds to antigen specific receptors on lymphocytes

b) membrane bound constituents of B cells

c) immunologically active regions of an immunogen that binds to antigen specific receptors on secreted antibodies
d) soluble molecules secreted by plasma cells
e) b and d
Answer E
Which of the following is not involved in the transcription of immunoglobulin genes?
A. promoter
B. enhancer
C. RNAP III
D. octamer binding
E. transcription factors
Answer: C. Transcription is performed by RNAP II
A B cell hybridoma is a normal antigen primed B cell fused with which of the following?
A) myeloma
B) condyloma
C) granuloma
D) papilloma
Answer: A
This means of diversification induces an increase of mutation and occurs in the germinal centers.
a. N-addition
b. P-addition
c. Somatic hypermutation
d. junctional flexibility
answer: C somatic hypermutation
Which of the following is not true of IgG?
A. It is the most abundant isotype in serum
B. It activates complement
C. There are four subtypes found in humans
D. The subtypes of IgG vary in the size of hinge region and number of interchain disulfide bonds
E. It is secreted as a pentamer
Answer :E
Which of the following least likely describes VDJ Recombination:
DNA is cleaved by RAG-1 and RAG-2 protein complex
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) repairs and ligates the resulting coding and signal sequences from the RNA transcript
Signal sequences having one turn spacers can only sequences having two turn spacers
Artemis breaks the hair pin loop formed by RAG 1/2
Answer: 2
This theory explains antibody diversity under the assumption that a large number of antibody specificities are derived from mutations or recombinations of a small number of immunoglobin genes.
a. germ line theories
b. somatic-variation theories
c. clonal selection theory
d. instructional theory
Answer: somatic-variation theories
During B cell maturation and subsequent processes, gene segments are randomly shuffled generating more than _____ combinations.

A) 10^5
B) 10^6
C) 10^7
D) 10^8
Answer: D) 10^8
Where does antigen binding occur?
1. carboxyl terminus
2. amino terminus
Answer: 2, the effector function occurs at the carboxyl terminus
The __________ serve to extend the Fab arms of the antibody molecule, facilitating interaction with antigen and increasing rotation of the Fab arms

A. Vh and Vl domains

B. Ch1 and Cl domains

C. CDR1 and CDR3 regions

D. Disulfide bond and J chain
Answer: B
Which theory states that the genome contains relatively small number of immunoglobin genes from which a large number of antibody specificities are generated by mutations or recombinations?

A. Germ Line Theories
B. Somatic-Variation Theories
C. Selective Theory
D. Instructional Theory
E. None of the Above
Answer - B. Somatic-Variation Theories
The kappa and lambda light chain families contain _________ gene segments.

a) V D J
b) V D J C
c) V J
d) V J C
e) V D
answer: C

Note: Heavy chain families contain V,D,J,C

***might be D****
Antibodies play a role in:

I. antigen binding
II. opsonization
III. activation of complement
IV. ADCC
V. passive immunity

a. I, II, and III
b. II, III, V
c. I, II, IV, V
d. I, II, III, V
e. I, II, III, IV, V
answer is E.
Myeloma can be induced in mice by injecting mineral oil I.P. The resulting cells are called __________.

A. Neoplasms
B. Plasmacytomas
C. Parietal cells
D. Natural killer cells
Correct: B
Which of the following is FALSE regarding IgA?

a) It is the first antibody produced in response to antigen
b) Typically a monomer in serum
c) About 10-15% of total Ig in serum
d) Dominant in external secretions
Answer: A
The light chain family consists of which gene segments?
a) V, D, J
b) V, J
c) V, D, J, C
d) V, J, C
Ans D
Each B cell produces an antibody that recognizes a single epitope; the B cell epitope is a(n)
A. internal peptide
B. hydrophilic part of the antigen
C. hydrophobic part of the anitgen
D. none of these
Answer is B
Which of the following isotypes does not contain a hinge region
a. epsilon
b. alpha
c. omega
d. gamma
Answer: epsilon
Which of the following antibodies has a J chain?
IgM
IgG
IgD
IgE
Answer - IgM - it is a pentomer and so has a J region - the rest are monomers
Which of the following is false about the the process of somatic Hypermutation?
A. This process allows for individual nucleotides in VJ and VDJ units to be replaced altering the specificity of immunoglobulings
B. Normally occurs in germinal centers
C. Spontanious mutation mutates nucleotides at a rate of 10^4 times faster than somatic hypermutation.
D. Process is targeted for DNA segments in the V region at least 1500 nucleotides long.
E. All the above are true
Answer: C
Which of the following is/are responsible for activating a complement pathway response to antigen?
A. IgG
B. IgA
C. IgM
D. IgE
E. choice A and C
F. choice A and B
Answer: E
RAG enzymes cleave DNA at:

A. At the upstream end of the heptamer RSS
B. Between the heptamer RSS and the coding region
C. Between the nonamer RSS and the coding region
D. At the downstream end of the nonamer RSS
Answer B
Which of the following is NOT an interaction directly involved in neutrophil extravasation?

1) PRR + PAMP
2) E-selectin + mucin
3) Integrin + ICAM
4) Chemokine + chemokine receptor
5) None of the above are involved in extravasation
1 (This is for pathogen recognition, not extravasation)
Recombination Activating Genes (RAG 1 and RAG 2) are mainly expressed during which 2 phases of the cell cylce?
a. G0 and S phase
b. G1 and M phase
c. S phase and M phase
d. G0 and G1
e. M phase and G0
Answer: D
Which of the following recombination events involves the broken coding ends being modified with the addition and removal of bases?

A. Synapsis
B. Cleavage
C. Coding End Processing
D. Joining
Answer: C
The hinge regions found in IgG, IgD, and IgA are mainly composed of which two amino acids

a. tyrosine and threonine
b. tryptophan and serine
c. proline and valine
d. cysteine and proline
Answer: D. cysteine and proline. The cysteine residues form interchain disulfide bonds that hold the two heavy chains together and the proline residues form an extended polypeptide conformation that makes it vulnerable to cleavage by proteolytic enzymes.
What properties of immunogens contribute to adaptive immunogenicity?

A) Foreigness
B) Molecular size
C) Chemical composition
D) Ability to be processed processed and presented
E) All of the above
Answer: E
Which of the following is false?
A) Antibodies have 2 roles: antigen binding and mediation of effector functions
B) Antigen binding occurs at the amino terminus
C) Effector function occurs at the carboxyl terminus
D) Antigen binding occurs at the carboxyl terminus
Answer: D. Chapter 4 slide 33
Question: How many and which of the following statements about Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is/are False?

(a). IgA present in external secretions is generally present as a dimer (IgA-IgA).
(b). In the blood, IgA is generally present as a monomer.
(c). More secretory IgA is produced daily than that of any other immunoglobulin class.
(d). Receptor -mediated endocytosis in involved in the transport of the receptor-IgA complex.
(e). All of the above statements about IgA are false.
Answer: (e) "All the above statements about IgA are falsw. Why? Well, because, in fact, all of the above statents, (a) through (d), about IgA are true.
What fraction remains if blood or plasma is allowed to clot?
sera
Which of the following is true regarding IgA and IgM?

1) While IgA only makes up 10-15% of serum Immunoglobulin IgM makes up around 80%
2) Only IgM contains hinge regions, which are necessary for its pentameric structure
3) Both isotypes can exist in non-monomer forms within the body
4) There is a significant structural difference between the J-chains of IgA and IgM
5) Due to their complementary actions, IgA and IgM tend to be produced at the same time in the primary immune response
C
Which of the following is false regarding antibody structure?
1) When IgM is pentamerized, it is common to find a mixture of kappa and lambda light chain types which increases the variability of CDR’s
2) Light chain types kappa and mew can form antibodies with any of the five heavy chain types
3) The unique structure of IgM allows it to best agglutinize antigen among all antibody classes
4) In a given fraction there should be only half as many Fc fragments as Fab fragments
5) Hinge regions are not found on either IgE or IgM
A
Which of the following is not one of the main groups of antigenic determinants (epitopes):

a) allotype
b) idiotype
c) neotype
d) isotype
answer: c) neotype
Generation of antibody responses is dependent on all of the following EXCEPT:

a) specificity
b) affinity/avidity
c) cytidine deaminase
d) half-life of antibody
e) prduction rate/ influenced by # of B cells
Answer: c
All of the following describe/are features of somatic hypermutation except...

a. occurs at a rate at least 100K times greater than that of spontaneous mutation
b.normally occurs only within germinsl centers
c. palindromic sequences in Vh and Vl regions are not susceptible to somatic hypermutation
d. most mutations are nucleotide substitutions
answer: c
Which of the following statements concerning multigene organization of Ig genes is false?

A. The κ and λ light-chain families contain V, J, and C gene segments and the rearranged VJ segments encode the variable region of the light chains.
B. A functional λ variable region gene contains two coding segments – a 3’ V segment and a 5’ J segment – which are separated by a noncoding region.
C. The λ multigene family contains some pseudogenes – defective genes which are incapable of encoding protein.
D. The organization of the Ig heavy chain genes is similar to, but more complex than, that of κ or λ light chain genes.
E. All of the above are true.
Answer: B (Ch. 5 pg. 115)
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about recombination signal sequences?
A. The intervening sequences of 23- and 12- bp show one and two turns of the DNA helix, respective.
B. Held responsible for the flanking of each V, D and J gene segment.
C. The one-turn/two-turn joining rule ensures one particular segment will NOT join to another of the same segment (ie: VL with VL).
D. RSS is conserved.
A
Which of the following is FALSE in regards to IgM?

a. IgM is secreted as a pentamer.
b. IgM efficiently activates complement.
c. IgM is found in high concentrations in the intercellular tissue fluids.
d. IgM is the first antibody produced in a primary response to antigen.
Answer: C. Because of its large size, IgM does not diffuse well so it is not found in high concentrations in the interstitial fluid.
Which of the following is an effector function of antibodies?
(a) Opsonization
(b) Complement activation
(c) ADCC
(d) all of the above
Answer: D
Rearranged ____ segments encode the variable region of kappa and lambda light chains, while rearranged ____ segments encode the variable region of heavy chains.

a) VJ; VDJ
b) VJC; VDJC
c) VDJ; VJ
d) VD; VJ
Answer: a
Which of the follinwg steps are not used in Sandwich ELISA:
I. Add enzyme conjugated secondary antibody
II. Use antigen coated well
III. Add substrate and measure color
IV. Add specific antibody to be measured
V. Use Antibody coated well

a) I and II
b) II only
c) I only
d) II and IV
e) IV and V
Answer: d
Which of the following defines an agent used in immunology to augment and improve the effects of a vaccine in order to elicit a more vigorous response from the immune system in case of an infection?
a. immunogen
b. antigen
c. adjuvant
d. epitope
e. stimulant
Answer is c
Which of the following is false about haptens:

a. Can be modified slightly chemically to examine the effects on antibody recognition
b. Are valuable to understanding epitopes that can be found on immunogen
c. can mount an immune response in the absence of a carrier protein
d. Can directly measure cross-reactivity
C
The hinge region of Immunoglobulin M is composed primarily of:
A. Proline residues
B. Methionine residues
C. Cysteine residues
D. (A) and (C)
E. There is no hinge region
Answer=E. There is no hinge region
If a rabbit was injected with a small protein (X) complexed with a larger protein (Y), what would you expect the dominant antibody response to be?

A. Anti-X
B. Anti- Y
C. Anti- XY
D. There wouldn't be an immune response because the complex is too small.
Answer: A
IgG has _____ subclasses, while IgA has ____ subclasses...
answer: 4, 2
Immunoglobin E(IgE) mediateshypersensitivity which concerns__________

A. Asthma
B. Hives
C. Anaphylactic shock
D.All of the above
D is the answer
When antibodies are subjected with mercaptoethanol what is the resulting fragments?
a. 2 Fab and Fc
b. 2 F(ab')
c. 2 heavy and 2 light chain
d. 1 Fc
answer: c
Kappa and lambda light chains and heavy chains are encoded by separate multi-gene families situated on different chromosomes. (a) True (b) False
This statement is correct, so the answer is (a) True
Which of the following is not classfied as a type of Epitope?

a) idiotypic
b) allotypic
c) epitypic
d) isotypic
C
Which of the following regarding recombination signal sequences is least correct:

A. These sequences function as signals for the recombination process that rearranged the genes.
B. Each RSS contains a conserved palindromic pentamer and a conserved CG-rich nonnamer sequence separated by an intervening 12 or 23 base pairs.
C. The intervening 12 and 23 bp sequences within the RSS correspond, respectively, to one and two turns of the DNA helix.
D. Recombination signal sequences having a one-turn spacer can join only with sequences having a two turn spacer.
E. All of the above are correct.
Answer B: Each RSS actually contains a conserved pelindromic HEPTAMER and a conserved AT-rich sequence.
Animals immunized with a hapten carrier conjugate produce antibodies specific for which type of antigenic determinant?

A. The hapten determinant
B. Unaltered epitopes on the carrier protein
C. New epitopes formed by regions of both the hapten and the carrier molecule in combination
D. All of the above
D
Which of the following about RAG is NOT true?

A. Rag genes are silenced in proliferating cells
B. Plays a major role in V(D)J recombination
C. Only expressed in mature lymphocytes
D. Rag-1 acts similarly to restriction endonuclease
C
Which of the following is the most abundant immunoglobulin in serum?

A. IgG
B. IgA
C. IgD
D. IgM
Answer- A
Which one of the following diseaes is most associated with a translocation of the c-myc gene?

A.) Burkitt's Lymphoma
B.) Hogdkin's Lymphoma
C.) Leukemia
D.) Crohn's Disease
E.) Colon Cancer
Answer: A
Which of the following are not part of the heavy chains of a given antibody molecule that determine the class of that antibody?

A) IgM
B) IgG
C) IgA
D) IgD
E) IgK
Answer: E) IgK, the missing class is IgE
Kappa and Lambda Light chain families contain all but _________ gene segments?

A. V
B. J
C. C
D. D
D. D
Which of the following do not contribute to antibody diversity?
somatic hypermutation
nucleotide addition
v-d-j joining
association of heavy and light chains
junctional inflexibility
answer is 5
Q: An infection being eliminated from the host is a demonstration of -----------------; whereas, a specific response to the infection is indicative of ---------------------------.
A: Innate, Adaptive
The hinge region is rich in proline residues and is flexible. Which of the following immunoglubins is not invovled in the hinge region?

A. IgG
B. IgM
C. IgA
D. IgD
correct answer: B
The following are true about gel electrophoresis except:

A. Separates proteins by size only

B. Separates proteins by charge only

C. Proteins with the highest net charge of equal size will move faster

D. Separates proteins by charge and size

E. More than one of the above
Answer E. both a and b are not true
Which of the following (gamma) γ-radiation isotypes have the longest half-life?

(A.) 51Cr
(B.)125I
(C.)131I
(D.)14C
The correct answer is: (B.) 125I, according to the table 22-4 on Pg. 551.
The B Cell mitogen (in mouse), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates which of the following Toll Like Receptors (TLRs)?

(A.) TLR5
(B.) TLR2
(C.) TLR4
(D.) TLR7
The answer is: (C.) TLR4
Which of the following enzymes is NOT commonly employed for ELISA?

a. alkaline phosphatase
b. horseradish peroxidase
c. photolyase
d. beta-galactosidase
[Answer: c- photolyase ; pg.155]
All of the following are true of in-vivo experimental conditions, except:

a. experimental conditions are the most natural
b. the system is not necessarily tightly regulated
c. conditions are artificial and thus results can be misleading
d. lack of control makes data interpretation unclear
e. conditions utilize the entire animal for experimentation
Answer: C
(The statement in answer choice C applies to in-vitro conditions)
A scientists wants to conduct an experiment studying the effects of a novel HIV drug on specific types of cells. Which of the following cell lines would be the most appropriate to start with?
a. Primary mouse culture
b. SP2/0
c. Jurkat
d.CTLL-2
Answer: c, see Table 22-3.
**In order to study HUMAN immunodeficiency virus, human cell lines are much more preferred than mouse cell lines (from Dr. Larkin's 3/14 lecture)
The following are true about gel electrophoresis except:

A. Separates proteins by size only

B. Separates proteins by charge only

C. Proteins with the highest net charge of equal size will move faster

D. Separates proteins by charge and size

E. More than one of the above
Answer E. both a and b are not true
Which of the following components involved in the T cell recognition of peptide MHC complex have low specificity?
A. Anchor residues
B. MHC
C. Peptide
D.T cell receptors
*B. MHC
Polymorphic MHC can change when interacting with different T cell receptors. T cell receptors have high specificity but MHC has "promiscuity" because it can interact with various atigens.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the mice P strain?
a) High incidence of leukemia
b) sensitivity to radiation
c) High complement actvity
d) Frequent partner in preparation of congenic mice
Answer: a
Viruses have developed a number of different strategies for evasion of complement activity. Which answer does NOT fall into any of these strategies:

a.Interference with the binding of compliment to antibody-antigen complexes.
b.Viral mimicry of mammalian complement regulators.
c. Presence of long polysaccharide chains in the cell wall LPS component
d.Incorporation of cellular complement regulators in the virion.
e. none of the above
answer: c . this is an example of bacteial evasion (bacteria evasion example: page 181/ viral evasion: 185)
During______________, a special case of somatic mutation, portion of the sequence of one gene, the recipient, are modified to assume the corresponding sequence of a donor gene.

a) a) Affinity maturation

b) b) Gene conversation

c) c) P-Addition

d) d) N-Addition
Answer: B

Text book. Page 127
How many amino acids does the MHC Class I peptide-binding cleft accommodate?

a. 10-30

b. 8-11

c. 15-20

d. 5-10
Answer B
What is the binding site for T cell coreceptor in MHC class I?

a) alpha 3 region
b) alpha 2 region
c) beta 3 region
d) beta 2 region
answer: alpha 3 region
If patient X were to have a viral infection, which of the following would likely be seen in the highest levels?

A. CD4+ T cells
B. MHC Class I
C. MHC Class II
D. CD8+ T cells
E. More than one of the above
The correct answer would be E since both CD8+ T cells and MHC class I would be seen in high levels.
In terms of MHC class I and MHC class II molecules which of the following is least correct:
a) B2microglobulin is a non-MHC encoded subunit but associates with MHC class I
b) HLA regions A,B,C is associated with MHC class I while HLA regions DP, DQ, DR are associated with MHC class II
c) MHC class II presents endogenously derived peptides to T helper cells
d) The B2 region of MHC class II binds to CD4
(answer c----exogenously)
Which of the following does not differ lymphoid cell line from primary lymphoid cell culture?
a) They survive definitely in tissue culture
b) Have abnormal number of chromosomes
c) They can be grown for extended period of time in culture
d) Show abnormal growth properties
The answer is A
MHC Class I will consist of what:

a.) an alpha chain
b.) a non-MHC encoded subunit (Beta2 microglobulin)
c.) a delta-epsilon chain
d.) both answers a and b are correct
Answer: d (source: slide 10 of chapter 8
alpha chain and B-2 microglobulin!
T/F

Biotin and Avitin binds with extremly low affinity?
Ans. False , Biotin and Avitin binds with high affinity.
All of the following are true of the complement system EXCEPT:

A. Complement components participate in the inflammatory response, opsonization of antigen, viral neutralization, and clearance of immune complexes.
B. Complement made MAC has the ability to lyse gram-negative bacteria, parasites, viruses, erythrocytes, and nucleated cells.
C. Herpesviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses are all susceptible to lysis by complement.
D. The alternative and lectin pathways always require initial antigen-antibody interaction to activate and are therefore key parts of the adaptive immune system.
E. Most enveloped viruses are susceptible to complement-mediated lysis.
Answer: D. The alternative and lectin pathways generally DO NOT need antigen-antibody reactions and are therefore part of the innate immune system.
What is the function of microbial elastase and which bacteria have it?
a. prevents insertion of MAC into bacterial membrane, gram negative
b. prevents insertion of MAC into bacterial membrane , gram positive
c. inactivates anaphylatoxins C3b and C5a, gram negative
d. inactivates anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, gram positive
answer: C
HLA-DQ5 is a:
A) Mouse MHC class 1
B) Human MHC class 2
C) Human MHC class 1
D) Mouse MHC class 3
E) Mouse MHC class 2
Answer: B
The progeny of New Zealand White (NZW) and New Zealand Black (NZB) mice are used for in vivo studies modeling which of the following diseases?
a. leukemia
b. lupus
c. HIV
d. lung cancer
Answer: B.
The smaller fragments resulting from complement cleavage, C3a and C5a, called ______________, bind to receptors on mast cells and blood basophils and induce degranulation.

a) bacterial capsules
b) lectins
c) anaphylatoxins
d) membrane-attack complex
C
Which of the following pathways of complement activation generally occur without an initial antigen-antibody interaction and thus are important components of the innate immune system?
a) classical pathway
b) alternative pathway
c) lectin pathway
d) a & b
e) b & c
Answer: e)
Which of the following pathways of complement activation generally occur without an initial antigen-antibody interaction and thus are important components of the innate immune system?
a) classical pathway
b) alternative pathway
c) lectin pathway
d) a & b
e) b & c
Answer: e)
Which one of the following is NOT true regarding the alternative complement pathway?

A. It can be triggered by infectious agents in absence of antibody.

B. It does not require C1, C2, or C4.

C. It cannot be initiated unless C3b fragments are already present.

D. It has the same terminal sequence of events as the classic pathway.
Answer is C
A patient skin-tested with purified protein derivative (PPD) to determine previous exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops induration at the skin test site 48 hours later. Histologically, the reaction site would MOST probably show

A. eosinophils.

B. neutrophils.

C. B cells.

D. helper T cells and macrophages.
Answer is D
The peptide-binding domains of MHC-I Molecules consists of _____ and _____. The peptide-binding domains of MHC-II molecules consists of ______ and _______.

A. α1/ α1, α1 / β1
B. α1 / α2, α1 / β1
C. α1 / α2, α1 / β2
D. α2 / α2, α1 / β1
E α2 / α2, α2 / β1
The answer is B. (α1 / α2, α1 / β1)
The major histocompatibility complex plays a significant role in all of the following EXCEPT?

A. Rejection of transplanted organ
B. Allergies
C. Binding to a very limited range of peptide sizes to regulate the immune defense
D. Make a difference in determining predispositions to certain diseases
Answer: C
Which of the following statements is not true?
A. Exogenous antigens can be presented on MHC I or MHC II molecules
B. The MHC I genes in mice are encoded by genes in H2-K H2-L H2-D regions
C. In order for a T cell to respond to an antigen, it needs to recognize both the antigen and the MHC the antigen is presented in (i.e., T cells respond to self MHC molecules)
D. The alpha-1 and alpha-2 on MHC I and the alpha-1 and beta-1 on MHC II have structural similarities to immunoglobulin folds.
Answer: D
which mouse strain would be used lupus?
1 - NZJ
2 - BALB
3 - P
4 - SJL
5 - none of the above
answer: none of the above (NZB used for lupus)
Which of the following is NOT an activating protease in a complement pathway?

a. C1s
b. C3b
c. Factor D
d. MASP
Answer: b (Hoffmann slide 31)
Which of the following is not a cell line commonly used in research?

A. CTLL-2
B. Jurkat
C. ConA
D. SP2/0
Answer: ConA
Which of the following is not a characteristic of MHC Class II?

A. Consists of alpha and beta subunits
B. Binds peptides 13 - 20 AA in length
C. The native proteins have to be processed prior to binding
D. Present endogenously derived peptide to Th
D
Which MHC class consists of an encoded alpha chain and present exogenously derived peptides to Th?

A. Both Classes Listed Below
B. Class I
C. Class II
D. None encode an alpha chain
Answer: C
Which one of the following is NOT a method that viruses use to evade complement activity?
A.) Interference with the binding of complement to antibody-antigen complexes
B.) Viral mimicry of mammalian complement regulators
C.) Incorporation of cellular complement regulators in the virion
D.) Destruction of complement using secreted proteins
Answer: D
In Sandwich ELISA, what type of well is used in the first step?
a) Antigen-coated well
b) Antibody-coated well
c) Antigen-Antibody coated well
d) Enzyme-conjugated antibody coated well
Answer is: b) Antibody-coated well
Which of the following interactions contributes to the interactions between antigen and antibody?
I. Van der Waals
II. Hydrophobic Interactions
III. Ionic Bonds
IV. Covalent Bonds
V. Hydrogen Bonds

A. I, II, and IV
B. I, II, III, and V
C. III only
D. III and IV
Answer: B
The soluble proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are mainly synthesized by?

a. tissue macrophages
b. liver hepatoctyes
c. blood monocytes
d. epithelial cells of gastrointestinal track
answer: b
p196
Which of the following is true regarding the invariant chain?

A) Associated with MHC-II antigen presentation pathways
B) Provides stability for the alpha and beta chain
C) Makes sure the wrong peptide doesn't end up in the binding groove
D) Invariant chain stays in groove until antigen is encountered
E) All of the above
E
Which regulation proteins for the complement system can be found in all three pathways?

1) C1Inh, S protein, Anaphylatoxin inactivator
2) CR1/MCP, DAF, Factor H
3) CR1/MCP, DAF, Factor I
4) C4bBP, DAF, HRF
Answer: 3 (see Table 7-2).
Which of the following is not a component of an ELISPOT assay:

1) Well is coated with antibody against the antigen of interest
2) Washing away unbound antibody
3) Adding a chromogenic substrate
4) Colored spots on the well show where the antibody is present
Answer: 4) Colored spots on the well show where the antibody is present
Which of the following is the least likely to be in initiator of the alternative pathway of the complement system?

a.) IgM complex
b.) Teichoic acid of Gram + cell wall
c.) Cobra venom factor
d.) Raji tumor cells
Answer: A
Which of the following cell types would you expect to express the least amount of MHC - I molecules?
A) neutrophils
B) B cells
C) Macrophages
D) Hepatocytes
Answer is D) Hepatocytes
Which regulatory protein of the complement ONLY effects the alternative pathway?

a. Factor H
b. CR1
c. DAF
d. S protein
A
Which is the following is formed following C3 hydrolysis?
A. Deactivated C3
B. Disulfide bonds
C. An activated thioester bond on C3b
D. C3a-Membrane complex
Answer: C
Which of the following is least likely to contribute to MHC polymorpism?
a. recombination
b. point mutation
c. somatic mutation of rearranged genes
d. gene conversion
Answer: C
MHC class I is encoded by which regions?

1. A, B
2. B, C, D
3. DP, DR
4. DQ, C
5. A, B, C
5
MHC class II is encoded by which regions?

1. A, B
2. B, C, D
3. DP, DR,DQ
4. DQ, C
5. DQ, DR
3
T/F it is estimated that each individal has 12 MHC I and 6 MHC II
F
T/F MHC I binds 8-10 aa while MHC II binds 13-18 aa
T
The flexible binding sites allow a single MHC molecules to ___.

a) bind many different peptides
b) bind peptides with high affinity

c) form stable complexes at the cell surface

d) export only molecules that have captured a peptide to the cell surface

e) all of the above
answer: E
Which strain of inbred mouse may be used as a candidate for studying leukimia?
a.) BALB/c
b.) C57BL/6
c.) P
d.) SJL
e.) None of the above
ans: (C)- P strain inbreds can be used to study leukemia
This pathways transports peptides which are from the cytosol to the rough ER and proceeds to make MHCI with the help of chaperones.

A. Endocytosis
B.Exogenous
C. Endogenous
D. Cross presentation
Answer: C
Immunologists discovered that T helper cells are necessary for B-cell activation in humoral response through the use of which system:
a). Cell culture system
b). Adoptive transfer system
c). Cloned lymphoid cell line system
d). Hybrid lymphoid cell line system
Answer: b (Chapter 22)
True or False: Mac-deficient individuals have immune-complex disease, which suggests that they do not produce enough C3b to clear immune complexes.
False: Mac-deficient individuals rarely have immune-complex diseases, which suggests that they do produce enough C3b to clear immune complexes.
Which region in an MHC Class I molecule remains constant and interacts with CD8 to form a signal to the T cell?
A. alpha-3
B. beta-2
C. alpha-1
D. beta-1
Answer: A. alpha-3.
Answer is discussed in the lecture from 3/21.
Gel Electrophoresis separates protiens by ___________?

A)Size
B)Charge
C)Number of Prolines
D)Function
E)both A and B
E
The set of MHC alleles on each chromosome is a haplotype and can be which of the following?

A) HLA-A2
B) HLA-B5
C) HLA-DR7
D) All of the above
Answer: D
Which of the following molecules prevents the association of C3b with factor B?

A. Factor I
B. HRF
C. Factor H
D. iC3b
E. DAF
Ans: C. Factor H
The following are all examples of antigen-antibody interactions EXCEPT:

a) Hydrophillic interactions
b) Ionic Bonds
c) Hydrophobic interactions
d) Hydrogen Bonds
Answer: A
Which type of bonds form the basis of antigen-antibody binding?

a) hydrogen bonds
b) ionic bonds
c) hydrophobic interactions
d) van der Waals forces
e) all of the above
E
Which of the following does not regulate C3 convertase either directly or indirectly?
(1) MCP
(2) DAF
(3) CR1
(4) C4bBP
(5) S protein
(5) S protein binds is incorrect because it binds to C5b67 and prevents insertion into cell membrane. Therefore it does not affect the C3 convertase.
What is the final step of membrane attack complex?

A. Binding of C8 to C5b67
B. Binding and polymerization of C9
C. Interaction between C8 and phospholipid bilayer
D. C5b678 creates a small hole
E. C5b binds to a cell and forms a binding site
Answer is B
A student wants to do an assay to quantify the proliferation rate of a colony. Which radioisotype would be most useful?

A. 125I
B. 51Cr
C. 32P
D. 3H
Ans:Tritium (D) which is used for radiolabeling thymidine.
Which experimental system would be best to examine specific components of an immune response?

a. Cloned Lymphoid Cell lines
b. Adoptive Transfer
c. Precipitation Reactions
d. RIA
B
Place the following steps of the endogenous pathway in the correct order:
Peptide is transported to RER via TAP
Class MHC class I perptide is transported from RER to Golgi to plasma membrane
MHC capture peptide and chaperones dissociate
Endogenous antigen is degraded by proteasome
A 4,3,2,1
B 1,2,3,4
C 4,1,3,2
D 2,4,3,1
C
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic functions of the complement system?

a) lysis of cells, bacteria, and viruses
b) immune clearance
c) opsonization
d) activation of only the innate immune system
e) binding to specific complement receptors on cells of the immune system
Answer: d
The complement system activates both the innate and the adaptive immune systems.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of MHC Class II molecules?

A) Native proteins must be processed prior to binding
B) Present endogenously derived peptide to Tc
C) Binds peptides 13-20 amino acids in length
D) Consists of encoded alpha and beta chain subunits
E) Each individual may possess up to 12 of these molecules
Answer: B (Correct statement: MHC II Molecules present exogenously derived peptide to Th)
What can activate the classical pathway?
a) IgD
b) MASP-1
c) C1q
d) IgM
Answer: d) IgM
Which is/are acceptable forms of C5 convertase?

I. C4b2a
II. C3bBbC3b
III. C4a2a
IV. C4b2a3b
V. C4b2b3b
A: II and IV
Which of the following smaller fragments following cleavage result in anaphylatoxins?
1) C1a and C3a
2) C3a and C4a
3) C4a and C5a
4) C5a and C3a
Answer: 4- C5a and C3a
Which of the following is not a type of humanized monoclonal antibodies?
A)Chimeric mouse-human antibody
B)Chimeric human-mouse antibody
C)Humanized antibody with grafted CDR's
D)Chimeric immunotoxin
E)Heteroconjugate
Answer: B
If you were to mate a homologous H-2b female parent mouse with a H-2k male mouse, to create a F-1 b/k mouse, which of the following could not be true:

a. the mom could accept skin graphs from the progeny
b. the progeny could accept skin graphs from the mom
c. the progeny could accept skin graphs from the dad
d. the dad does would reject skin graphs from the progeny
e. none of the above
A
Which of the following proteins binds to C5b678 and blocks the binding of C9 to this complex?
a. HRF
b. S protein
c. Factor H
d. Factor I
answer: a HRF (homologous restriction factor)
table 13-6 in Hoffman lecture.
Major Histocompatibility Complex has the following roles:
a) Role in organ transplantation
b) Role inmune response
c)Role in predispostion to disease
d) All of the above
Answer is d
True/False

Proteins are separated based on both molecular weight and charge when run on SDS-PAGE
False, SDS neutralizes the charge difference by coating the protein with negative charge.
Which complement receptors do phagocytic cells have?
Answer: CR1, CR3, and CR4
Which of the following is true about MHC molecules?
a. MHC molecules discriminate between foreign and self peptides
b. MHC I has a subunit that is non-MHC encoded
c. MHC I has two transmembrane segments
d. MHC II alpha-2 region binds CD4
Answer: b
A father who is b/k has a child with a mother who is k/k. The resulting child is b/k. Which of the following is true?

I. The child can receive a transplant from its father
II. The child can receive a transplant from its mother
III. The father can receive a transplant from the child
IV. The mother can receive a transplant from the child

a. I, II only
b. I, II, III
c. I, III only
d. I, II, III, and IV
Answer: b