Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TRUE or FALSE: Lepromatous Leprosy involves a T-Helper SubType-1 response.
FALSE
Symptoms that might be seen in a disease that involves overproduction of cytokines include:


A.) Septic Shock


B.) Fever


C.) None of the Above


D.) A & B
A & B
You are on rounds, shadowing a clinical pharmacy specialist in the Infectious Disease Department at your local hospital. Patient X is demonstarting abnormally low levels of leukocyte specific CAMS. In this patient, what might you expect to see?


I. Little to no extravasation of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes.


II. A very healthy individual with no signs of infection


III. Poor wound healing





A.) I only


B.) II Only


C.) I and III


D.) II and III


E.) I, II, III
I and III
A. Selctin Family


B. Mucin-like Family


C. Integrin Family


D. Ig Superfamily CAMs


E. Exists in more than 1 family





MAdCAM-1 is classified in this family of proteins
Exists in more than 1 family
A. Selctin Family


B. Mucin-like Family


C. Integrin Family


D. Ig Superfamily CAMs


E. Exists in more than 1 family

ICAM-1 is classified in this family of protein
Ig superfamily CAMs
Which if the following are involved in strong interactions with sialyl-Lewis (CHO) groupings?


A.) Selectins


B.) Mucins


C.) Integrins


D.) A & B


E.) All of the Above
A & B
Which of the following are characterized by an alpha/beta heterodimeric pairing in it's chain structure?


A.) Selectins


B.) Mucins


C.) Integrins


D.) Ig Superfamily CAMs
Integrins
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of chemokines in terms of their regulation of leukocyte trafficking?


A.) Chemokines tend to be very large in size (300-500aa's)


B.) They generally posess 4 conserved cysteine residues


C.) They are constitutively expressed by the thymus


D.) Some are actively involved inflammation, homeostasis, and development


E.) None of the above are incorrect
Chemokines tend to be very large in size (300-500aa's)
In order to acheive extravasation, leukocytes must be able to penetrate the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. In order to be able to change shape and move specifically in this process, cytoskeletal rearrangment and __________________ have to occur. In order for this to occur, _____________ pathway must occur.


A.) actin polymerization; activation of Ras


B.) actin polymerization; activation of PLC-beta2


C.) actin polymerization; activation of adenyl cyclase


D.) differentiation/proliferation; activation of PLC-beta2


E.) differentiation/proliferation; activation of adenyl cyclase
Actin polymerization; activation of PLC-beta2
TRUE or FALSE: A cell can respond to a chemokine only if it has a receptor that recognizes it.
True
Which of the following is the correct order typically seen in the process of extravasation?


A.) rolling, activation, transendothelial migration, arrest/adhesion


B.) activation, rolling, arrest/adhesion, transendothelial migration


C.) rolling, activation, arrest/adhesion, transendothelial migration


D.) transendothelial migration, arrest/adhesion, activation, rolling
Rolling, activation, arrest/adhesion, transendothelial migration.
Typical sites in the body where one might witness mass occurrences of leukocyte extravasation in the body inclue:


I. Inflamed endothelium


II. Areas with a higher concetration of selectins, integrins, and Ig-Superfamily CAMs


III. HEV's





A.) I only


B.) II only


C.) III only


D.) I and III


E.) I, II, III
I, II, & III
Based upon what you have learned in immunology, which leukocyte would you expect to bind to CAMs the quickest and acheive extravasation in the least amount of time?


A.) They are all equally as fast


B.) Lymphocytes


C.) Monocytes


D.) Neutrophils
Neutrophils
A particular lymphocyte has left the blood lymphocyte pool and has entered either the spleen or the lymph nodes...you do not know which. Which of the following answers would be the BEST estimate of when this lymphocyte will probably re-enter the lymphocyte blood pool?


a.) less than 5 hours


B.) right around 5 hours


C.) between 5 and 12 hours


D.) 24 hours


E.) it is impossible to tell
Between 5 and 12 hours
_________________ direct the circulation of various populations of lymphocytes to particular lymphoid and inflammatory tissues.


A.) Homing Receptors


B.) Closing Receptors


C.) Mating Receptors


D.) Spasmodic Receptors
Homing Receptors
TRUE or FALSE: Naive lymphocytes, despite the fact that they have yet to become sensitized to particular antigens, have specific preferences for 1 or 2 types of secondary lymphoid tissues.
False
After a T-cell has cloned out to form specific effector and memory cell subtypes, it is usually observed that the vast majority of memory cells tend to home in on:


A.) Regions of heavy infection


B.) The type of tissue in which it first encountered the Ag


C.) Any tissue that it comes in contact with


D.) No tissue at all; the memory cell clones will all die


E.) The blood-brain barrier
The types of tissue in which it first encountered the Ag
One of your customers has recently been prescribed a hypothetical new "Wonder Drug" that is said to target the peptide bradykinin in the treatment of her severe and chronic asthmatic condition. As you are providing counseling on this drug, you tell her that this drug has a wide variety of side effects including 1.) poor wound healing, 2.) a higher incidence in bacterial and viral infections, and 3.) some deadening sensation of pain. Given what you know, which biochemical is this drug most likely affecting?


A.) Plasmin


B.) Thrombin


C.) Fibrinogen


D.) Prekallikrein


E.) Hageman Factor
Hageman factor
You have been ordered to take children's aspirin (81mg) everyday as part of a primary prevention strategy aimed at potential cardiovascular disorders that tend to run in both sides of your family. Among many other things, your pharmacist tells you that aspirin may affect thromboxane and prostaglandin synthesis to a certain degree. Given this, which pathway is most likely being affected?


A.) The production of arachidonic Acid from cell membranes


B.) Lyso-PAF Pathway


C.) Lipoxygenase Pathway


D.) Cyclooxygenase Pathway
Cyclooygenase pathway
While you are on your early morning jog, you slip on some ice and skin your knee. Following the breach in skin, which of the following MIGHT be expected?


A.) Release of histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes


B.) Extravasation of neutrophils


C.) Complement activation


D.) ONLY A & B


E.) All of the Above
All of the above
[TNF-alpha]'s might be elevated in:


I. States of cachexia


II. Some cancers


III. [TNF-alpha] remains at a steady state at all times





A.) I only


B.) II only


C.) III only


D.) I & II


E.) I, II, III
I & II
INF-alpha isa cytokine than can decrease proliferation of CD4 Helpter-T (Subtype 2) cells, increase microbial activity of macrophages, and increase cytotoxic activity of NK cells. In these instances, INF-alpha demonstrates:


A.) Pleiotropy


B.) Synergism


C.) Antagonism


D.) Redundancy
Pleiotropy
Which of the following describes Positive Selection of T-cells?

i. Permits survival of those T-cells capable of self- MHC recognition

ii. Ensures self-tolerance

iii. Process of T-cell Maturation

iv. Involves death by necrosis of cells that do not interact with MHC molecules

a. iii only

b. i and iii only


c. ii only

d. ii, iii, iv only

e. i, ii, iii, iv only
b. i and iii only
What is unique about the zeta zeta chain of the CD3 complex?

i. It is always a homodimer

ii. It has a very short external region

iii. It has a long cytoplasmic tail

iv. It contains 3 copies of ITAM

a. iii only

b. i and iii only

c. ii only

d. ii, iii, iv only
d. ii, iii, iv only
What is required to fully activate a naïve T-cell

a. Signal produced by interaction of antigenic peptide with TCR- CD3 complex

b. Antigen non-specific costimulatory signal

c. Interaction between CD28 on the T-cell and the B7 family of the APC

d. All of the Above
d. All of the Above
What is the relationship of CTLA-4 and CD28

a. Synergistic

b. Antagonistic

c. Co-stimulatory

d. Inhibitory
Antagonistic
In a patient without CTLA-4, what would occur

i. T-Cell proliferation

ii. Lack of T-cell Activation

iii. Lymphadenopathy

iv. Inability of b7 to bind to T-cell

a. iii only

b. i and iii only


c. ii only

d. ii, iii, iv only

e. i, ii, iii, iv only
b. i and iii only
Which of the Following is not caused by a Super Antigen?

a. Toxic Shock Syndrome

b. Food Poisoning

c. Pneumonia


d. Rheumatic Fever
c. Pneumonia
Which type of cell does not require activation for expression of co-stimulatory B7 molecules on their membranes?

a. Dendridic cells


b. B cells

c. Macrophages

d. All require activation

e. None require activation
a. Dendridic cells
Which characteristics of T-cell apoptosis are true?

i. Active capase-3 begins the cascade leading to apoptosis

ii. The TCR activation cascade occurs in the Thymus

iii. It can be activated by the binding of FAS/ FAS-L

iv. The TCR activation pathway is slower

a. i only

b. i and iii only

c. ii only

d. ii, iii, iv only

e. i, ii, iii, iv only
e. i, ii, iii, iv only
TRUE or FALSE: TCR's are always soluble
FALSE - they are membrane bound; not soluble
In the TCR Complex, the key signaling motif that is critical to signal transduction is:
A.) the variable sequence of the BCR
B.) ITAM
C.) IgB
D.) IgA
ITAM
In general, the alpha and beta chains of the TCR have ________ cytoplasmic tails that ___________.
A.) long, utilizes 2nd messenger systems
B.) long, are directly involved in signaling transduction
C.) short, utilizes 2nd messenger systems
D.) short, are directly involved in signaling transduction
Short, utilizes 2nd messenger systems
CD4 and CD8 co-receptors _________________.
A.) weaken the interaction between T-cells and APCs.
B.) are involved in signal transduction.
C.) A&B
D.) None of the above
B - CD4and CD8 STRENGTHEN the interaction between T-cells and APCs (as opposed to weakening the interaction) and are involved in signal transduction.
Use the following:
I. Functions in signal transduction
II. Is not a member of the Ig superfamily
III. Ligand is Class MHC II molecule

Which of the above apply to CD8 co-receptors?
A.) I only
B.) I and II
C.) II only
D.) II and III
E.) I and II and III
I only
When discussing the "2-point attachment" that occurs when CD4 STABILIZES T-Cell and APC interaction, the cell membrane components involved are:
A.) intracellular part of CD4 + MHC I AND the extracellular part of CD4 and p56lck with the zeta chain of the CD5 complex
B.) intracellular part of CD4 + MHC II AND the extracellular part of CD4 and p56lck with the zeta chain of the CD3 complex
C.) extracellular part of CD8 + MHC II AND the intracellular part of CD4 and p56lck with the zeta chain of the CD3 complex
D.) extracellular part of CD4 + MHC II AND the intracellular part of CD4 and p56lck with the zeta chain of the CD3 complex
D.) extracellular part of CD4 + MHC II AND the intracellular part of CD4 and p56lck with the zeta chain of the CD3 complex
TRUE or FALSE: Positive selection permits the survival of ONLY those T-cells capable of self-MHC restriction
True
A.) MHC restriction
B.) Self-tolerance
C.) Both
D.) Neither

8.) Negative selection ensures: ____________.
B. Self-tolerance
A.) MHC restriction
B.) Self-tolerance
C.) Both
D.) Neither

Positive selection ensures: _____________.
A. MHC restriction
When T-Cells are activated, proliferation of the cells produces:
A.) Memory cells
B.) Effector cells
C.) Macrophages
D.) A & B
E.) All of the above
A & B
Match the genes with their categories/stages in regards to T-cell activation and clonal expansion.
I.) Various adhesion molecules
II.) c-Fos, c-Myc, c-Jun, NFAT, NF-KB
III.) IL-2, IL-2R, IL-6, INFg

A.) Immediate Genes
B.) Early Genes
C.) Late Genes
I and C

II and A

III and B
CD4/CD8-associated p56lck __________ ITAMs of zeta-chains and ultimately ________________________.
A.) phosphorylates/permits signal transduction
B.) phosphorylates/inhibits signal transduction
C.) dephosphorylates/permits signal transduction
D.) dephosphorylates/inhibits signal transduction
A.) phosphorylates/permits signal transduction
A.) Found only on resting T-cells
B.) Found only on activated T-cells
C.) Found on both resting and activated T-cells

13.) CD28
C.) Found on both resting and activated T-cells
A.) Found only on resting T-cells
B.) Found only on activated T-cells
C.) Found on both resting and activated T-cells

14.) CTLA-4
B.) Found only on activated T-cells
CTLA-4 is _______________ and _______________ T-cell activity.
A.) stimulatory/up-regulates
B.) stimulatory/down-regulates
C.) inhibitory/down-regulates
D.) inhibitory/up-regulates
C.) inhibitory/down-regulates
TRUE or FALSE: Endogenous SuperAgs are soluble proteins secreted by bacteria.
FALSE
Use the following to answer the next question:
A.) Endocytosis/phagocytosis
B.) Phagocytosis
C.) Receptor-mediated endocytosis

17.) B-lymphocytes use this in the uptake of exogenous antigen.
C.) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
APC's interact and can activate different types of T-cells; use the following to answer the questions regarding T-cell and APC interaction.
I. Naive T-cells
II. Effector T-cells
III. Memory T-cells

18.) Resting B-cells can activate which of the T-cells mentioned above?
A.) I only
B.) I and II
C.) II only
D.) II and III
E.) I and II and III
II and III
APC's interact and can activate different types of T-cells; use the following to answer the questions regarding T-cell and APC interaction.
I. Naive T-cells
II. Effector T-cells
III. Memory T-cells

19.) Dendritic cells can activate which of the T-cells mentioned above?
A.) I only
B.) I and II
C.) II only
D.) II and III
E.) I and II and III
I and II and III
TRUE or FALSE: Apoptosis in T-cells does not require caspases.
False
Which of the following characteristics best describe the role of cytokines?
A.) They are small, secreted, soluble proteins/glycoproteins
B.) They promote effects via 2nd messenger systems
C.) They function solely in innate immunity
D.) A & B
E.) All of the Above
A & B
An interleukin is a cytokine that is/are:
A.) Made by Lymphocytes
B.) Made by Monocytes
C.) Has chemotactic activity
D.) Is made by one leukocyte and acts on other leukocytes
D.) Is made by one leukocyte and acts on other leukocytes
Use the following bank to answer the next several questions (you may use 1 or a combination of answers):
A.) Pleiotropy
B.) Redundancy
C.) Synergy
D.) Antagonism
E.) Cascade Induction

3.) When two or more cytokines act together
Synergy
Use the following bank to answer the next several questions (you may use 1 or a combination of answers):
A.) Pleiotropy
B.) Redundancy
C.) Synergy
D.) Antagonism
E.) Cascade Induction

4.) When the same cytokine acts on different cell types
Pleiotropy
Use the following bank to answer the next several questions (you may use 1 or a combination of answers):
A.) Pleiotropy
B.) Redundancy
C.) Synergy
D.) Antagonism
E.) Cascade Induction
5.) An activated T-Helper cell produces 3 different cytokines which all can act on one type of target cell to produce the same effect but these cytokines ALSO produce other effects in several other types of target cells as well
The first portion describes B.) Redundancy and the second portion describes A.) Pleiotropy
Use the following bank to answer the next several questions (you may use 1 or a combination of answers):
A.) Pleiotropy
B.) Redundancy
C.) Synergy
D.) Antagonism
E.) Cascade Induction

6.) A series of cells produce a series of cytokines to ultimately produce a desired effect.
Cascade induction
A Helper-T cell secretes cytokines into the plasma around it and diffuses a short distance to interact with a nearby target cell (i.e. a B-cell, mast cell, thymocyte, etc.). This particular cytokine, once secreted does not bind nor produce any sort of effect on the cell that produced it. Additionally, this cytokine has an extremely short half-life and will decompose shortly after being released. Given this information, which of the following classes of action is most likely to be the one described in the scenario above?

I. Autocrine Action
II. Paracrine Action
III. Endocrine Action

A.) I only
B.) II only
C.) III only
D.) II and III
E.) I, II and III
II only
TRUE or FALSE: The principle producers of cytokines are T-Helper cells, macrophages and dendritic cells
True
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the four major Cytokine Families?
A.) Hematopoietin
B.) Androgen
C.) Interferon
D.) Chemokine
E.) Tumor necrosis factor
Androgen
TRUE or FALSE: The Ig Superfamily Receptor IL-18 differs substantially in terms of function when compared to that of IL-1
False
The Ig Superfamily Receptor IL-1R (Type 2) is found on:
A.) T-cells only
B.) Macrophages only
C.) B-cells only
D.) Thymocytes only
E.) Mast cells only
B-cells only
The Class I (Hematopoietin) Receptors are best characterized by their:
A.) Conserved cysteines and WSXWS regions on the extracellular motif
B.) A large extracellular motif composed of several distinct regions of disulfide-bonding
C.) A conserved CCCC motif
D.) An extracellular motif consisting of 4 extracellular domains (C1C3C2, C1C3C2...etc.)
A.) Conserved cysteines and WSXWS regions on the extracellular motif
A patient presents with a high concentration of the interferons and is also noted as having IL-22, IL-28 and IL-29 in statistically significant amounts. In such a case, which of the following cytokine receptor families is most likely to be found in order to correspond with the presence of the aforementioned cytokines?
A.) Ig Superfamily Receptors
B.) Chemokine Receptor Family
C.) TNF Receptor Family
D.) Class I Receptors
E.) Class II Receptors
E.) Class II Receptors
A graduate student in molecular cell biology is studying the structural composition of cytokine receptor families and is currently looking at one particular cellular domain that appears to have seven transmembrane helices. In addition, along with the cell sample that this complex was uncovered, it is also reported that the subject had a high presence of IL-8, RANTES and MIP-1 at the time of blood sampling. First, the cell-membrane structure is most likely indicative of which intracellular signaling process? And second, if the student had to make an educated guess, what is the most likely pathophysiological presentation the subject could have been suffering from when this blood sample was taken?

A.) G-protein cascade; asthma
B.) G-protein cascade; MI
C.) JAK-STAT transduction; Ulcerative colitis
D.) Insulin-receptor transduction; asthma
E.) Src Tyr kinase transduced; asthma
A.) G-protein cascade; asthma
The Cytokine Receptor IL-2R is best described by which of the following:
I. Is critical in the proliferation of T-cells
II. Occurs only in an Intermediate and High Affinity form designated as possessing the domains gamma/beta and gama/beta/alpha respectively
III. Each form has a different affinity for the ligand IL-2

A.) I only
B.) II only
C.) III only
D.) I and III
E.) I, II and III
D - (II is wrong because IL-2R comes in 3 distinct forms...not 2)
16.) The Intermediate form of IL-2R is typically expressed by which of the following cells of the immune system?
A.) NK Cells
B.) Resting T-Cells
C.) Activated B-Cells
D.) A & B
E.) All of the above
A & B
17.) In order for the cell to recognize that a cytokine has bound to one of its receptors, there must be a way for the information presented at the cell membrane to be sent to the nucleus. For most Class I and Class II cytokine receptors, this is accomplished via the activation of JAK tyrosine kinases which _______________the receptor and then forms a docking site for ______________.
A.) phosphorylates; STATs
B.) phosphorylates; MEK
C.) dephosphorylates; ERK
D.) dephosphorylates; RAS
E.) calcifies; RAF
Phosphorylates; STATs
18.) TRUE or FALSE: IL-1 always signals via the JAK-STAT pathway
False
19.) Cytokine antagonists can best be described by:
A.) Are generally proteins or protein derivatives
B.) Can directly bind to a cytokine receptor and fail to promote activation
C.) Can directly bind to a cytokine receptor and inhibit its activity
D.) A & C only
E) All of the Above
All of the above
20.) A sample of blood and extracellular fluid comes into a path-lab where you are doing some personal hours of study for your own edification. The scientist analyzing the sample notes that both of the fluids possess an unusually high amount of cytokine inhibitor known as soluble-IL-2R. Given what you have learned in immunology, what pathophysiological condition(s) might best describe what Patient X could be suffering from?
A.) AIDS
B.) Ischemic stroke
C.) Diabetes
D.) A & B only
E.) All of the Above
AIDS
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

21.) Commonly seen in promotion of excessive inflammation and tissue injury
T-Helper 1
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

22.) Seen in processes that produce IgG Abs that promote opsonization
T-Helper 1
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

23.) Secretes Il-10, Il-4, IL-5 and is critical in eosinophil/mast cell production
T-Helper 2
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

24.) Secretes IL-3
Both A and B
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

25.) Is critical in activation of macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells
T-Helper 1
Use the following ket to answer questions 21-26.
A.) T-Helper 1
B.) T-Helper 2
C.) BOTH A and B

26.) Promotes production of IgM and IgE and is often witnessed in supporting allergic reactions
T-Helper 2
27.) TRUE or FALSE: The presence of IL-4 is absolutely required for Helper-T-cell 2 response.
True