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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ruminant eye
-unique anatomy
-horizontal pupil
-dorsal & ventral pupillary ruff
Camelid eye
-unique anatomy
-atapetal
Swine eye
-unique anatomy
-upper lacrimal punctum
-round pupil when dilated
-atapetal
Pupillary ruff
-function
-light shielding effect
Animal
Animal
Bovine
Animal
Animal
Goat
Animal
Animal
Pig
Animal
Animal
Sheep
Appearance of what structure is useful for systemic disease assessment and diagnosis?
-conjunctiva
Conjunctival chemosis
-due to
-hypoproteinemia
-Haemonchus contortus in sheep
Conjunctival hemorrhage
-due to
-thrombocytopenia
-coagulopathies
-septicemia
Subconjunctival hemorrhage that often solve without therapy is seen where?
-newborn calves following birth trauma
Thrombocytopenia
-some causes
-autoimmune
-drug reactions
-others
Conjunctiva color causes
-pale
-yellow
-brown blood in vessels
-purple vessels
-bright red vessels
-pale = anemia
-yellow = icterus
-brown blood in vessels = nitrate poisoning
-purple vessels = cyanotic conditions (patient turns blue)
-bright red vessels = cyanide toxicity
Microphthalmia
-cause
Generally unknown
-bluetongue (sheep)
-toxin
-nutrition
-environmental
-possibly inherited
Microphthalmia
-describe
-small globe of eye, with other eye abnormalities usually present (microcornea, cataract, staphylomas, etc.)
Staphyloma
-define
-abnormal protrusion of uveal tissue through a weak point in the eye
Diagnose
Diagnose
-microphthalmia with cataract
Bluetongue virus
-mode of transmission
-Culicoides sp.
-non-contagious
Bluetongue virus
-ocular signs
-blepharitis and conjunctivitis in adult sheep
-structural abnormalities in lambs
-concurrent blindness, chorioretinitis, retinal dysplasia
Bluetongue virus
-treatment
-symptomatic care
Bluetongue virus
-most common ocular sign
-describe
-retinal dysplasia
-retina has folds that look like grey linear lines on exam
Bluetongue virus
-species affected
-sheep
-cattle
Hydrocephalus
-effect on eyes
-strabismus (eye deviation)
-brain pushes eyes down and out
-other ocular abnormalities concurrently
Albinism
-clinical sign
-pink irises (void of pigment, thin)
-photophobia, blepharospasm, nystagmus
Congenital ocular conditions
-microphthalmia
-veratrum californicum
-bluetongue
-hydrocephalus
-albinism
Veratrum californicum
-aka
-skunk cabbage
Veratrum californicum
-cause of toxicity
-plant alkaloids consumed by dam on day 14 of gestation (when eye is developing)
Veratrum californicum
-animal affected
-sheep
Veratrum californicum
-effects
-cyclopia
-synophtalmos
-anopthalmos
-condition
-cause
-condition
-cause
-synophthalmia
-Veratrum californicum
Eyelid inversion
-aka
-entropion
Entropion
-effects
Skin/hair irritating eye
-squinting, tearing
-corneal ulceration and keratitis
-blindness (severe cases)
Entropion
-lid more commonly affects
-lower lid
Entropion
-animal common in
-lambs
Entropion
-cause
-congenital
-early onset
-inherted (don't breed)
Entropion
-types
-causes
Primary entropion
-congenital/anatomical

Secondary entropion
-enophthalmus (profound dehydration*, emaciation)
-Spastic entropion = pain (corneal/conjunctival disease)
-Cicatrical = scarring
Entropion
-treatment
Temporary eversion (young animals)
-vertical mattress tacking suture
-metal clips or skin staples
-eyelid injection of an irritating antibiotic (penicillin) to cause granuloma formation and scarring; not in small animals and horses

Surgical correction
-if persistent when animal is mature
-Hotz-Celsus
Eyelid laceration
-repair is necessary when?
-functional or cosmetic concern
Eyelid laceration
-treatment
-Prompt closure with minimal debridement
-high vascularization

Surgery
-examine globe for injury
-cleanse with dilute betadine
-2-layer closure with figure 8 at eyelid margin
-absorbable suture material
Blepharitis
-define
-inflammation/swelling of eyelids
Blepharitis
-causes
Ocular problem or rubbing?

-parasite
-bacterial
-fungal
-viral
-other
Blepharitis
-parasitic causes
-Demodex caprae
-Sarcoptes scabiei (ruminants)
-Elaeophora schneideri (sheep)
Blepharitis
-bacterial causes
-dermatophilosis (ruminants, swine) -->rain scald
-Clostridium novyi --> eyelid edema
Blepharitis
-fungal causes
Dermatophytosis (goats)
-Trichophyton verrucosum (ruminants)
-Trichophyton ovis (sheep)
-Microsporum nanum (pigs)
Dermatophytosis
-signs
-dry/crusty periocular alopecia
-non-pruritic
Dermatophytosis
-treatment
-herd

-zoonotic
Blepharitis
-viral causes
-capripox virus
-blue tongue (sheep)
-papillomatosis (cattle, sheep)
-contagious ecthyma aka orf --> zoonotic
Blepharitis
-"other" causes
-photosensitization
-zinc deficiency
-beta mannosidosis
Keratoconjunctivitis
-main causes in sheep and goats
-Chlamydophila sp.*
-Mycoplasma sp.*
-Oestrus ovis
Keratoconjunctivitis
-differentials
-environment (dust, pollen, fumes)
-mechanical irritation
-foreign body
-other
Most common Chlamydophila causing keratoconjunctivitis
-Chlamydophila pecorum (type 2)
Chlamydophila pecorum
-types
-Type 1 = enzootic abortion
-Type 2 = no abortion
Chlamydophila pecorum
-transmission
Direct (contagious)
-feed bunkers, poor ventilation, overcrowding, dry conditions
-following stress (lambing, nursing)
-found in body secretions
Chlamydophila sp.
-signalment
-1-6 mo. age (feedlot lamb disease)
Chlamydophila sp.
-clinical signs
-conjunctivitis (pinkeye)
-photophobia
-polyarthritis (sheep)
-corneal ulceration (uncommon)
Chlamydophila sp.
-clinical course
2-4 wks
-medical costs and production losses
Chlamydophila sp.
-associated problems
-recumbency
-fever
-polyarthritis
Chlamydophila sp.
-diagnostics
-clinical presentation
-conjunctival scraping (intracytoplasmic, basophilic inclusions)
-fluorescent antibody test
Chlamydophila sp.
-treatment
-oxytetracycline (SQ 48 hrs)
-Flunixin
-Topicals (terramycin)

-quarantine infected
Chlamydophila sp.
-prevention
-closed herd for isolation
-isolate new stock
-fly control
Mycoplasma sp. that cause keratoconjunctivitis
-M. conjunctivae var capri
-M. mycoides var ovis
-M. capricolum
Mycoplasma causing keratoconjunctivitis
-signalment
-more common in kids than adults
-hand reared kids with poor quality colostrum
Mycoplasma causing keratoconjunctivitis
-clinical signs
-polyarthritis
-pleuropneumonia
-keratoconjunctivitis
-mastitis
Mycoplasma causing keratoconjunctivitis
-diagnosis
-clinical signs
-epidemiology (keratoconjunctivitis, polyarthritis)
-culture
-response to treatment
Mycoplasma causing keratoconjunctivitis
-treatment
-oxytetracycline
-tylosin
Uvea
-3 parts
-iris
-ciliary body
-choroid
Uveitis
-etiological differentials
-sepsis
-listeriosis
-Mycoplasma sp.
-Toxoplasmosis sp.
-Elaeophorosis sp.
-Thiamine deficiency
-Caprine arthritis encephalitis
-Trypanosomiasis
-Blunt trauma
-Retroviral diseases
-Toxic
-Trauma
Infectious diseases with ocular signs
-Botulism
-Listeriosis
-Neonatal septicemia
-Tetanus
Botulism
-etiology
-Clostridium botulinum
Botulism
-mechanism of action
-toxin prevents release of Ach
Botulism
-clinical signs
-mydriasis
-decreased PLR
-ascending limb paralysis
-flaccid paralysis
-salivation
Listeriosis
-etiology
-Listeria monocytogenes (zoonotic)
Listeriosis
-clinical signs
-facial nerve paralysis
-KCS
-keratitis
-purulent endophthalmitis
-corneal ulcer

Cattle --> ocular lesions are most common
Neonatal septicemia
-clinical signs
-red eye
-fibrin clots in anterior chamber
-hypopyon
-hyphema
Hypopyon
-definition
-white blood cells settled out in the anterior chamber of the eye
Hyphema
-define
-hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye
Tetanus
-etiology
-Clostridium tetani
Tetanus
-mechanism of action
-tetanosporum toxin prevents inhibitory neurotransmission to motor neurons
Tetanus
-clinical signs
-stiffness, spasticity, paralysis
-sawhorse stance
-retraction of ears/lips
-elevation of tail
-retraction of globe
-prolapse of 3rd eyelid
-bloat
-death
Retinal degeneration
-possibly inherited in what species
-cattle
-goat
Retinal degeneration
-acquired causes
-chronic inflammatory disease
-Plant toxicity
-Vitamin A deficiency
Plants causing retinal degeneration
-Bracken fern
-Locoweed
Vitamin A deficiency
-clinical signs
-night blindness
-corneal ulcers
-lacrimation
-retinal degeneration (persistence)
Signs of retinal degeneration
Signs of retinal degeneration
-hyperreflective tapetum
-depigmentation of non-tapetum
-thin vessels
Central (cortical) blindness
-causes
-lead poisoning
-Polioencephalomalacia
-Pregnancy toxemia
-CNS abscess
-Larval stage of Taenia multiceps
-Listeria sp.
-Hydrocephalus
-Scrapie
-Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis
-Toxins (Brassica, Arsenic)
Polioencephalomalacia
-due to
-thiamine deficiency
Duct/Punctal atresia
-treatment
-surgical repair (create a patent duct with a stylet)
Camelid Blepharitis and Keratoconjunctivitis
-causes
Bacterial agents
-Thelazia sp.
Swine Blepharitis and Keratoconjunctivitis
-causes
-Mycoplasma sp.
-Chlamydophila sp.
-Pseudorabies
-Hog cholera
Camelid corneal ulcer
-treatment
-Medical w/ SPL
-surgical w/ conjunctival graft