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25 Cards in this Set

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American Prison Association
Founded in 1870, it became the American Corrrectional Association in 1954. The ACA played an important role in moving American prisons into the rehabilitation era. Today the ACA is the premier national organization for persons employed in the corrections field.
Classification
Considered by some to be the key to any rehab. efforts, classification refers to the process and procedures designed to idetnify things such as an offenders needs, and the risk he or she presents to the community. When classification is conducted for purposes of addressing the offender's needs, it is considered to be classification of treatment. Classification that stresses publice safety and offender risk is classification management.
Classification Committees
The grouping of administrative, security, and treatment staff who meet to make decisions about the facility to which an inmate will be assigned, to determine an inmate's cell and work assignmnets at an institution, and to develop a treatment program for the inmate.
Contract System
An OPEN MARKET labor system in which a private contractor controls employment and the sale of products. The state, however, is in charge of the maintenance and discipline, of the inmate workers. Contracting is especially criticized by labor unions as taking away jobs from law-abiding workers.
Federal Bureau of Prisons
As an agency within the U.S. Department of Justice, the Federal Bureau of Prisons is responsible for operating nearly 100 federal correctional facilities that range from supermax prisons to prison camps.
Industrial Era
The penal system era, lasting from the 1900's to 1930's, in which prison labor moved from an activity designed primarily to benefit the state to an activity that might benefit the prisoner.
Intervention
Along with CLASSIFICATION, and TREATMENT, intervention is a key aspect of REHABILITATION. The concept of intervention supports the idea that it is appropriate and neccessary for corrections officials to act in a manner that will bring about change in an offenders behavior.
Labor for Profit
When the work is used to help make prisoner economically self-sustaining, it is labor for profit.
Labor for Punishment
When a prisoner's labor is purely punitive in nature and without productive purpose, it is labor for punishment.
Labor for Rehabilitation
When the goal of labor is to benefit the prisoner by providing him or her with marketable skills, the work is for rehabilitation.
Lease System
An open market labor system in which a private contractor controls employment, the sale of products, and is in charge of the maintenance and discipline of the inmate workers. THe lease system is often considered the most objectional prison labor system because of the potential and actual abuse of inmates when private individuals control conditions under which prisoners work.
Medical Model
The orienting philosophy of the REHABILITATION ERA. With a view of the criminal as "sick," the mdeical model requires that society's response to the offender be examination, diagnosis, and treatment.
Open Market
Those types of prison labor systems in which inmate-made products are sold by private companies or by the state to any prospective buyer. Contrast with SHELTERED MARKET.
Piece-Price System
An OPEN MARKET labor system in which the state controls employment and is in charge of the maintenance and discipline of the prisoner workers. The individual products or "pieces" are then given to a private company for a specific "price" per item. The private company controls the sale of the product.
Progressive Reformers
Late nineteenth and early twentieth century social reformers who believed governemnt intervention could be used to solve social problems.
Publice Account System
An OPEN MARKET labor system in which the state controls employment, the sale of the products, and is in charge of the maintenance and discipline of the orisoner workers. Inmates who manufacture items such as furniture, binder twine, and farm machinery and who work in mines are engaged in the publice account system.
Public Works and Ways System
A SHELTERED MARKET labor system in which the state controls employment, the sale of products, and is in charge of the maintenance and discipline of the prisoner workers. Inmates constructing or repairing publice buildings, publice roads, and public parks are engaged in the publice works and ways system.
Reception and Diagnostic Centers
Separate facilities, or defined sections of other facilities, where newly arrived prisoners are recieved. At the RDC, information is gathered about the inmate's educational, vocational, social, religious, psychological, medical and dental history and needs. That information is used by CLASSIFICATION COMMITTEES to determine the specific prison to whcih the inmate will be transferred and to suggest a treatment program and security level appropriate for that prisoner.
Rehabilitation Era
The penal system era lasting from the 1860's to the 1900's in which imprisonment took a more humanitarian approach and incorporated an emphasis on education, training, and preparing the inmate for release to the community.
Resorative Era
A forcasted penal system that may follow the current REHABILITATION ERA. If the Restorative era does begin, its key ingriedient will be a philosophy of restoration in which punishment;s goal is to make the community and victim whole again.
Retributive Era
The penal system era beginning in the 1970's and continuing to the present time. Key aspects of this era are a JUST DESERTS philosophy and a DETERRENCE objective.
Sheltered Market
Those types of prison labor systems in which inmate-made products are produced only for the state's benefit or sold only to state agencies. Contrast with OPEN MARKET.
State Use System
A SHELTERED MARKET labor system in which the state controls employment, the sale of products, and is in charge of the maintenance and discipline of the prison workers. Inmates who manufacture furniture, clothing, traffic signs, and license plates are engaged in the state use system.
Treatment
Along with CLASSIFICATION and INTERVENTION treatment of offenders is a key aspect of REHABILITATION. Treatment typically involves the offender in specific programs, such as substance abuse counseling or vocational training, that will provide the offender with skills, attitudes, and motivation to refrain from future involvement in criminal behavior.
Wickershame Commission
The National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (named Wickersham Commision after its head, George Wickershame) was active from 1929-1931 at the request of President Hoover. The commission's 1931 report helped move America's prisons into the REHABILITATION ERA by calling for the rehabilitation of criminals.