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27 Cards in this Set

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Deterrence
The punishment philosophy that says punishment's aim is to preventr future offenses by setting an example for both the offender and others.
Diyya
In Islamic law, diyya is money paif to a victim or his relatives in compensation for a felony committed against the victim.
Equity
As an important aspect of RETRIBUTION philosophy, equity says there should be a similarity in punishment for similar crimes and similar criminals.
Folkways
Along with mores and laws, folkways provide the norms or guidlines for behavior in society. Of the three, folkways are social expectations whose violation result in the least serious reaction or sanctioning by other members of society. Rules of etiquette are good examples of folkways.
Formal Sanction
Sanctions are formal when they are applied by someone acting in an official capacity.
General Deterrence
The version of deterrence that seeks to prevent crime by using punishment to show others who are considering a criminal act that they will suffer painful consequences if they commit that act.
General Incapacitation
According to this version of incapacitation, most kinds of felons are imprisoned in an attempt to achieve large gains in crime prevention.
Incapacitation
The punishment philosophy that says punishment's aim is to prevent an offender's continued criminal acts by restricting that offender;s freedom to move about. Traditionally the freedom to move about has been restricted by placing the offender in prison, but recent technology suggests that incapacitation might also be achieved with tools such as electronic monitoring.
Informal Sanction
Sanctions are informal when applied by someone acting without offical standing.
Just Deserts
As an important aspect of retributive philosophy, just deserts requires the severity of the punishment to match the seriousness of the offense and the blameworthiness of the offender.
Laws
Along with folkways and mores, laws provide the norms or guidlines for behavior in society. Of the three, laws are social expectations whose violation result in the most serious and formal reaction or sanctioning by other members of society. A state's criminal code is an example of laws.
Lex Talionis
Law retaliation. This principle requires that a wrongdoer recieve the same injry he cause another to suffer. Succincly stated in saying, "an eye for an eye."
Mores
Along with folkways and laws, mores provide the norms or guidlines for behavior in society. Of the three, mores are social expectations whose violation result in mid-level reaction or sanctioning by other members of society.
Negative Sanction
Discourage norm violating behavior.
Net-Widening
When programs (electroni monitoring) designed as alternatives to the traditional process (probation or prison) actually bring more people into the criminal justice system, the net has been widened.
Norm of Reciprocity
Refers to the idea that much of economic and social like relies on relationships involving mutual exchanges of goods, or organizations. It is important to corrections in the sense that punishment is a natural response, or reciprocation, to a wrongful act.
Norms
The guidlines for behavior in society. Normsnot only tell us how we can expect others to behave in differnet social situations, but they also tell us how we are expected to behave.
Positive Sanction
Sanctions that encourage continuation of norm-abiding behavior.
Proportionality
An aspect of RETRIBUTION that believes retaliation should be properly related in degree to the crime that was committed. The philosophy of lex talionis is saif to express proportionality.
Reclamation
The earliest form of rehabilitation whose goal was to rescue wrongdoers from the evil that had overcome them. Offenders were to be reclaimed or brought back to the correct ways of living.
Reformation
Like rehabilitation, reformation suggests that punishment can be used to change or correct an offender's behavior. However, reformation does not imply the use of individualized treatment plans or therapy procedures as does rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation
The punishment philosophy that says punishment's aim is to use a treatment plan and therapy to provide offenders with skills, attitudes, and norms that can enable them to be law-abiding members of the community.
Restoration
The punishment philosophy that says punishment's aim is to make the victim and the community whole again by restoring things as much as possible, to how they were before the crime occured.
Retribution
The ounishment philosophy that says punishment is a required response by the state to a wrongful act committed by the offender.
Sanction
A technique used by society to enforce its norms.
Selective Incapacitation
Under this version of incapacitation, imprisonment is used only for a select group of especailly dangerous repeat offenders whose freedom of movement must be restricted to protect society.
Specific Deterrence
The version of detterence that seeks to prevent crime by using punishment to show the criminal that the criminal act was undesirable because it brought more pain than pleasure.