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47 Cards in this Set

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Filtrate
That part of a chemical compound that passes through a filter.
Supernatant
The liquid portion of a chemical mixture after centrifugation that is about the pacted solid portion of the mixture.
Precipitate
The fine particulate matter that appears in a solution due to a chemical mixture.
Decant
To pour off the supernatant fluid from the precipitate.
Normal Solution (N)
A solution which contans one gram of replaceable hydrogen ion or its equivalent in 1 liter of solution. This is designated by "N".
Equivalent Weight
weight in grams of any substance which can replace, unite with, or have teh exact same reacting value as one atomic weight of hydrogen.
Molar solution (M)
Contains one gram of molecular weight of a substance diluted to one liter of solution.
Serum
The fluid part of the blood after clotting takes place.
Whole Blood
The combination of blood cells and plasma.
Plasma
The fluid part of blood before clotting takes place.
Hemolysis
Refers to the breakdown of red blood cells.
Red Top
No anticoagulant- clotted blood.
Purple Top
EDTA- whole blood or plasma
Green Top
Heparin- whole blood or plasma
Grey Top
Fluoride- preservative and anticoagulant
Blue Top
Sodium citrate- Prothrobin time and partial throbin time
Black top
Sodium Oxalate- Prothrombin time and partial throbin time
Heparin
This anticoagulant acts as in Antithrombin, preventing the transformation of prothrombin and prevents the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen. This anticoagulant is found in high concentrations in the liver and the lungs. This anticoagulant is not the choice in hematology because it can cause clumping of WBC.
Oxalates
Examples are sodium, potassium and lithium or ammonium. This group of anticoagulants inhibit the coagulation of blood by forming insoluble complexes with calcium ions (Ca++)
Sodium Fluoride
This anticoagulant is both an anticoagulant and a preservative. It is used to preserve blood glucose. It inhibits the enzyme system that causes Glycolysis. It can also be used to preserve blood alcohol levels.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid---- EDTA
A chelating agent which is excellent for hematology since it preserves cellular constituents. This anticoagulant binds calcium.
Chelating
To combine with (a metal) so as to form a chelate ring.
Most tests are not affected when a person eats or drinks before blood work is taken. However, the following tests must be taken as fasting labs.
glucose
inorganic phosphorous
triglycerides
cholesterol
lipids
protein
What are the most common clerical errors in blood collection?
1. Do not assume the person laying in the bed is correct person. Let the patient ID themselves. Check arm band. KNOW YOUR PATIENT. Ask what is your name!
2. Label tubes immediately with patient's full name, hospital number, rm #, your initials, time and date blood was drawn.
Beer-Lambert Law
The concentration of a substance is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed or inversely proportional to the logarithm of the transmitted light.
What are the parts to a photoelectric colorimeter?
Tungsten lamp->Slit->Filter->
Curvette with Sample-> photocell-> Galvanometer
What are the parts to a Spectrometer?
Tungsten Lamp->slit->Prism->
Slit-> curvette with sample->Phototube(photomultiplier)->
Galvanometer
Flame Photometry-

Flame Photometry deals with measuring the emission of light produced into a non-luminous flame, they emit light of definite wavelengths that is characteristic of a particular element involved.
Sodium = yellow flame
Potassium = violet flame
Lithium = red flame
Automation!!!
There are two concepts for automation!
1. Continous flow analysis
2. Discrete analysis
What are some types of Continous flow analyzers?
USED BY TECHNICON
SMA 12, AAI,AAII
or AAAIII and other SMA's
The concept behind Continous flow analysis? (LONG VERSION)
The macine picks up the sample on a turntable called a SAMPLER. The sampler is a circular structiure containg holes to hold specimen cups. A probe comes up and out and drops sample into a cup. Aspirates the serum and returns to the wash station to be rinsed for the next specimen. From the Sampler, the specimen goes through plastic tubing into the proportioning pump. The tubing leads to regagent bottles into the pump. When pump is activated, it pulls the serum through the tubing and the reagens from the bottles through the tubing into the MODULE. The Module is a box like structure that contains a dializer and the incubator if incubation is necessary. The serum, reagents and air mix together, pass through the dializer memberane to remove protein precipitation and then moves to the spectrophotometer. THe top part of the dializer retains protein precipitation where it is passed out through the waste. THe fluid that passes through the dializer is protein free filtrate which passes through mixing coils to the colorimeter.
The concept behind Continous flow analysis? (short version)
The whole concept Continous flow analysisi is that air bubbles are put into the specimens to separate specimens, mix specimens and maintain a continous flow. Before going into the spectrophotometer, the specimen id debubblized for reading concentration.
Important to make sure of three things with Continous flow analysis...
1. Make sure bubbles are the right size and the proper distance apart.
2. Make sure tubing is clean and proper size.
3. Make sure Dializer is working and the dialyzing membrane changed regularly.
Discrete Analysis
A discrete analysis allows tech to choose the test to be preformed.
Discrete Sequential Analyzer
Specimens are sampled from a carousel that holds the patients samples. The samples are analyzed in the same sequence as they are added to the insturment.
End Point Analysis
A chemical procedure that develops a maximum amount of color after maxium incubation time.
Rate Analysis
A chemical procedure in which the incubation time is interrupted and is not permitted to reach its end point.
Discrete, selective, random access analyzer.
This ananlyzer not only allows the operator to randomly select the test menu of each patient, but it also allows the operator to interrupt the program and add additional patient samples or "stats" while the analyzer is in the operation mode without interfering with what has already been programmed.
What is an example of a Discrete Analyzer?
The Dupont ACA. This system uses Reagent packs.
What is an example of a Discrete, selective, random access analyzer
Hitaci 911. Specimens are placed on a carousel. The instrument is programmed through a built-in computer
Carbohydrates are organic compounds of ______,______, and _______.
Carbon, Hyrdrogen, and oxygen are the organic compounds of Carbohydrates.
What are the 3 classifications of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides- glucose also known as dextrose.

Disaccharides- are double structures of monosaccharides-example sucrose from table sugar, maltose(from starch) and lactose from milk.

Polysaccaride- most abundant and formed by joining of many monosaccharide units.
The dializer on an AAII is used to :
Produce a protein free filtrate.
What is the difference between a spectrophotometer and a colorimeter?
The spectrophotometer has a prism and the colorimeter has a filter.
Which test is used for BUN?
Berthelot
A normal solution contains 1gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter.
A molar solution contains 1 gram molecular weight of solute per liter.
Which produre is used for creatine?
Jaffee reaction