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31 Cards in this Set

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Type of Samples, tests what analyte:
1.Serum,Plasma or Whole Blood
1.Blood: preferred for many toxic agents
2. for drugs of abuse
3.first stool of newborn, test drug abuse of mother
Theories of Chromatographies
1.Ion Exchange
1.Ion exchange:separation is based on exchange of ions between surface and elements
2.separation is due to series of adsorption and desorption steps
Theories of Chromatographies
3.Size exclusion
1.The analyte (enzyme, antibody, antigen, tissue receptor, etc.) binds to the support-bound ligand.It is eluted
2.Based on solute partitioning between two liquid phases
3.based on molecular size
1.Mobile Phase:
2.Stationary Phase:
1.A gas or liquid that percolates through or along the stationary bed in a definite direction
2.1 of 2 phases forming a chromatographic system; may be solid, gel or liquied
**Mobile phase carries the sample through a bed, layer or column containing the stationary phase.
1.Retention Factor
1.a measure of time the sample solute components resides in the stationary phase relative to mobile phase
1.Efficiency Factor
A measure of eddy flow in flow rates of the mobile phase as it goes through the stationary phase
1.Selectivity factor
1.a measure of the relative separation of the solutes related to the physical interaction between solute molecule and stationary phase
Test Samples
1.collect over long term on absorbent pad to monitor drug abuse in prison can chronicle over time prior to drug use
3.reflects the free fraction of the drug concentration.
1.What is a toxidrome?
toxidrome: the effects of toxic-related drugs and chemical agents can be classified into syndromes groups.
Toxidrome Groupings
Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation
*relates to agents that decrease cholinesterase activity. ex:organophosphate and carbamite pesticides like "parathion"
Toxidrome Groupings
Diuretics, Isopropanol, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethylene Glycol
*agents that can cause an increased osmolal gap
Toxidrome Groupings
Salicylates, Strychnine, Ethanol, Ethylene Glycol, Paraldehyde, Toluene, Iron, Isoniazid, Methanol
*Causes increase in anion gap
When is it appropriate to do
Single Testing in Toxicology?
1.Asses severity of poisoning
2.Indicate likely prognosis
3.To asses need for antidotes or elimination techniques
When is it appropriate to do multiple testing in Toxicology
1.Assess late or delayed absorption (slow release tablets)
2.Asses efficacy of treatment
3.Help decide when to start long term therapy if needed.
1.Test for carbon monoxide
2. What samples to use
1.Manual spetrophotometric methods (ER use cooximeter)
Absorbance at 555 and 541 but COhb has greater abs at 541.
2.Whole Blood (EDTA or heparin)
1.Test for Methemoglobin agents
2.Samples to use
3. Test for Ethanol
2. Whole Blood EDTA or heparin
3.Enzymatic (ADH) monitored at 340 nm, Breath Analyzers, Single Unit Assay Cards for saliva and urine testing
4.Either serum, plasma, whole blood or urine
1.Test for Cyanide
2. Whole blood (oxalate) or serum
3.Test for Isopropanol
1.Manual micro diffusion/colorimetric or diffusion/ ISE assay
2.Whole Blood
3.Enzymatic (ADH)
4.Serum, plasma, or whole blood
1.Test for Methanol
1.GC analysis (ADH metabolizes methanol to formaldehyde and formic acids, Qualitative test Chromotropic Acid Test (Turns purple with permanganate,an oxidized methanol)
1.Serum, Plasma, or whole Blood.
1. Test for Ethylene Glycol
1.GC Testing or urine testing for presence of Ca++Oxalate crystals.
2. Serum, Plasma, Whole Blood
1.Test for Iron
2. Samples
1.Photometric Iron and UIBC assay
1.Test for Lead
1.Anodic stripping Voltametry (ASV), or Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
2.Whole Blood Sample
1.Tests for Tricyclic Antidepressants, Phenothiazines, Antihistamines
1.Immunosassay, TLC, GC/MS or HPLC.
1.Test for Acetaminophen
2.Sample used

3.Test for Aspirin
4.Sample used
1.Immunoassay specific for acetominophen, less often, automated colorimetric assays can be used.
3.Colorimetric Spot Test employs FeCl3 or Phenistix.(gives purple color)
1.Test for Lithium
2.Samples used
1.ISE Technology or a Colorimetric Method. Some labs still utilize Flame Photometry.
2.Usually serum or plasma. Urine and other body fluids may be tested.
Clinical Lab Correlations in Toxicity with Ethanol and Other Alcohols

Ethylene Glycol

Ethylene Glycol
Van Deemter Equation
VanDeemter Equation


where A:Eddy Effusion
B:Longtitudinal diffusion
C:resistance to Mass Transfer (retention factor)
U: aver. velocity of the mobile phase
1. 2 reasons for analyte derivitization?
1.To stableize molecule, to enhance to specificity and sensitivity of separation
Planar Chromatography
and Rf
Planar Chromatography uses glass or plastic plate coated with a thin layer of sorbent.

** Rf = a ratio of spot distance to solvent front migration
GC components
Mobile phase supply

Flow Controller




HPLC components
1. Solvent reservoir for mobile phase
2.Pump/s to forice the liq. mobile phase thru system Injector to introduce aliq. to the column.
4. Chromatographic column to separate solutes
5.on line detector to detect sep analytes
6. computer
Reverse vs. Normal Phase
Reverse: Less polar stationary phase than normal
Normal: stationary is MORE polar than mobile phase.