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45 Cards in this Set

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Hormone secreted by B cells of Islets of Langerhans of pancreas?
Insulin
Action of insulin: ________ serum glucose.
Decrease.

-Stimulates gulcose uptake by cells.
Hormone secreted by alpha cells of pancreas?
Glucagon
Action of glucagon: ______ serum glucose.
Increase.

-Stilmulates glycogenolysis (breadown of glycogen to glucose).
Glycogenolysis is the breadown of ________ to ________.
Glycogen to Glucose.
ACTH is secreted by the __________.
Anterior pituitary
Growth Hormone is secreted by the _________.
Anterior pituitary.
ACTH ________ glucose.
Increase

Insulin antagonist.
Growth Hormone ______ gluocose.
Increases

-Insulin antagonist
-Acromegaly=hyperglycemia
Excess growth hormone is a condition known as ________.
acromegaly
Cortisol is secreted by the ________.
Adrenal cortex
Cortisol causes an _______ in glucose and stimulates ______________.
Increase in glucose

Stimulates gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogensis is definied as glucose from a _____________ source.
non-carbohydrate
Epinephrine is secreted by the _________.
Adrenal medulla
Stimulates glycogenolysis and causes increase in glucose?
Epinephrine
The tumor of adrenal medulla which causes hyperglycemia is called a _________.
Pleochromocytoma

Excess epinephrine
Glycogenolysis is stimulated by _______.
Glucagon
Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by ________..
Cortisol
Glycogenolysis is stimulated by ________.
Epinephrine and T3 & T4
T3 & T4 is secreted by __________
Thyroid gland
T3 & T4 _______ glucose and stimulates ___________.
Increases glucose

Stimulates glycogenolysis
GAG CHET stands for:

All cause an increase in serum glucose
Glucagon
ACTH
Growth Hormone

Cortisol
Human Placental Lactogen
Epinephrine
T3 & T4
Normal Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)?
<100mg/dL
Normal oral glucose tolerance test?
2 hr PG <140mg/dL
Diabetes Mellitus fasting plasma glucose?
>126mg/dL
Diabetes mellitus casual plasma glucose?
>200mg/dL plus unexpected weigh loss, polyuria, polydipsia.
Diabetes mellitus oral glucose tolerance test?
2 hour PG >200mg/dL
Gestational diabetes screen is called _______?
O'Sullivan Test

50g screen, if at 1 hour glucose is >140mg/dL, then give 100g dose and compare fasting (1,2,3 hr levels to acceptable limits)
Standard oral glucose tolerance test dose?
75 grams
Test that reflects pancreatic secretion of insulin?
C peptide

Proinsulin cleaved to give C peptide and Insulin.

Reflects endogenous insulin production if patient is taking insulin***
Test that detects small amounts of albumin in urine to assess early renal damage?
Urinary Microalbumin
Tube required for glucose testing?
Gray top=sodium fluoride
THe enzymatic method used on urine dipsticks?
Glucose Oxidase
Extremely high levels of ascorbic acid will interfere with _______ ______ enyzmatic method.
glucose oxidase
The reference method for glucose is?
Hexokinase
The enzymatic glucose methods are ________ reactions.
coupled
Hexokinase measures _______ directly at 340nm.
NADPH
The _______ ________ test evaluates the deficiency of lactase in small bowel.
Lactose tolerance test
To assess absorption and conversion to glucose, _______ is ingested and _______ is measured.
lactose is ingested and blood glucose is measured
In the xylose absorption test, _______ is absorbed and excreted into urine without need of pancreatic enzymes.
pentose
A low absorption of xylose indicates ______ _______.
Intestinal malabsorption
A normal absorption of xylose indicates _____-based malabsorption.
pancreatic-based malaborption
An indicator of oxygen deprivation?
Lactic Acid

-exercise, drugs, disease
Lactic acid is the end product of ____ _____ when oxygen deprivation occurs.
Glucose metabolism
_____________ increases lactic acid levels.
Glycolysis