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30 Cards in this Set

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Secession in Feb. 1861
CSA formed- Jefferson Davis as president.

CSA- Confederate States of America
Secession in Dec. 1860
South Carolina secedes- lower south, then Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
Gettysburg
Lee leads surprise attacks in Union (1863) territory (PA)
- 50,000 killed/wounded (North and South)
- Lee lost 17 generals, 1/3 of his army.
13th Amendment
1865- Abolished slavery during the war- 1863-1865.
Jan 1. 1863
All slaves in areas of rebellion are declared free.
- Slavery in border states continues
- War has moral purpose- end slavery (besides unifying the North and South)
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's Objective- "Save the union- not preserve or "defend" slavery

By 1862: He agrees with the Radical Republicans that war must lead to abolition.
Confiscaton Acts
1861- Authorized seizure of "Contraband of War" in South (includes slaves)

1862- Freed the slaves of people fighting against the US- freed slaves could be used in the Union army
Cotton Diplomacy
- Attempt by the South to get GB's support- they felt GB relied heavily on cotton.
- Fails. Southern planters snuck cotton to GB- GB gets cotton from India and Egypt.
- Slavery not favored by the British
End of Slavery
Lincoln needed to be cautious
- Needed to keep the support of the border states
- Constitutional protection of slavery
Commerce Raiders (Alabama and Florida)
Britain sells 2 ironclad rams to confederacy and captures 60 US vessels.
- US threatens war- Britain backs off
- After war, GB pays $15.5 million to US for damages. "Alabama Claims"
Trent Affair
2 confederate diplomats are sent to Europe to gain allies
- Union captures the ship, trent, and captures 2- upsets GB
- Lincoln releases both men- "ONE WAR AT A TIME!"
President Buchanan
(lame duck)Did nothing to stop secession
Congress attempts the Crittenden Compromise which would grant slavery south of 36'30

Not accepted by Lincoln- violates the Republican position against the eztention of slavery in the territories.
Democrats, Southern Democrats, Constitutional Union, Republicans, and Results
Dems- Stephen Douglass favored Popular Sovereignty

S.Dems- John Beckinridge- extension of slavery

Rep- Lincoln wants to exclude slavery in the territories.

Const. Union- John Bell- enforce laws and constitution.

Results- Lincoln carries all of the free states in the North (59% of electoral vote/ 40% of popular vote).
Slavery During the War: North
"Army of Freedom"
- first year- black soldiers rejected 1863- many enlist/drafted
- segregated (served under white officers)
- Higher mortality rates than whites (disease, bacteria).
Slavery during the war: South
Most stay on the plantations
- 1st year of war, masters could retrieve fugitive slaves
- J. Davis- captured slaves are reenslaved or executed
Lincoln's Assassination
(April 14, 1865)
John Wilkes Booth at Ford's theater
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan- (calls for peace and wins 45% of popular vote)
- Inaugural address- "with malice toward none, with charity for all."
Appomattox (Va)
April 9, 1865
- Site where Lee was forced to surrender to Grant.
- Grant allows Lee's men to return to their homes.
Sherman's March
Campaign of deliberate destruction across GA into SC
- Destroyed everything- cotton fields, houses, barns, and railroads.
- Takes Atlanta in September of 1864- in Feb. of 1865 he sets fire to Columbia, SC
- Impact broke the will of the south to fight.
Vicksburg
Fight for control of the Mississippi River (1863)- Grant lays siege on the city- falls after 6 weeks (July 4)
- North now surrounds the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Pronounced all blacks to be US citizens and tried to provide a legal shield against the opposition of southern state Black Codes.
Blacks
14th Amendment
Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the US were citizens.
- Obligated the states to respect the rights of US citizens and gave them equal protection of law and due process of law.
due process of law
14th Amendment as it applied to Congress
- Repudiated debts of defeated governments of the confederacy.

- Penalized a state if it kept a person from voting by reducing that state's proportional represntation in Congress and the electoral college.
Repudiated...
Tenure in Office Act
Prohibited the president from removing a federal official or military commander without the state's approval. Congress wanted to protect Radical republicans.
Edwin Stanton
Military Reconstruction
Placed south under military occupation- divided confederate states into 5 military districts under union army control. Increased the requirements for gaining readmission to the Union. To win it, and ex-confederate state had to ratify the 14th amendment and give EVERY adult male the right to vote.
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War in charge of the military governments in the South. Johnson dismissed him and was impeached by the House of Representatives. Charged with 11 "high crimes and misdemeanors" not removed from office- saved by 1 vote.
Secretary
15th Amendment
No state may deny a citizen's right to vote on count of race, color, or previous position of servitude.
vote
Sharecropping
Landlord provided seed and other necessary supplies to farmer in return for a share (usually 1/2) of the harvest
Landlord
Amnesty Act of 1872
Removed the last of the restrictions on ex-confederateds. Allowed southern conservatives to vote for democrats to retake control of state governments.
restrictions
Ku Klux Klan
Formed in 1867 by Nathaniel Bedford Forest as a way to keep blacks from voting.
Forest