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35 Cards in this Set

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Abolitionists
Wish to abolish slavery
Doctrine of Free Soil
Belief that Congress would prohibit slavery in all the new territories- keep the west a land of opportunity for Whites.
Popular Sovereignty
Territories could decide on the issue of slavery for themselves.
Compromise of 1850
(Henry) California applies for statehood- banning slavery- President Taylor supports admission of California and New Mexico as a free state- South talks of secession.
5 Parts to the 1850s Compromise
1. Admit Cali as a free state

2. Divide Mexican Cession into 2 territories- Utah and New Mex. Slavery would be decided by Popular Sov.

3. Texas- New Mex. boundary- give lands favorable to New Mex. in return- federal gvt would assume Texas' public debt of $10 mill.

4. Ban slave trade in Washington DC

5. Enforce the Fugitive Slave law
Reaction to Compromise
Differences still remain between the North and South
North's Benefit
Cali is a free state and New Mex/Utah are likely to be free...

No slave trade in DC.
South's Benefit
Strict fugitive slave law
Fugitive Slave Act (1850)
Track down runaway slaves who escaped to the North, capture them, and return them to their owners.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
David Wilmot proposed to forbid slavery in any of the new territories acquired from Mexico (passed House twice- defeated in Senate)
-Acquisition of western lands renewed the sectional debate over slavery.
Attempts to Prevent Enforcement
- Underground Railroad
- "Personal Liberty Laws"
Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman helped free 300+ slaves through a network of quakers. Price for her head- $40,000
Possible causes of the Civil War?
- Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

- Kansas Nebraska Act

- "Bleeding Kansas"

- John Brown's Raid
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Story of conflict between slave Tom and brutal owner Simon Legree splits the North and South.
- Depicted slave owners as cruel and inhuman.
- Book aroused Northern sympathy for slaves
- South said it was a "book of untruths".
Abe Lincoln meets Stowe
"So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."
Kansas Nebraska Act (Stephen Douglas)
Renews sectional conflict- many felt it was buried by the Compromise of 1850.
Nebraska Territory
Divided Kansas and Nebraska Territories- settlers would decide on slavery by Pop. Sov.
Reaction to the Kansas Nebraska Act
North is upset- repeals the Missouri Compromise (36'30) favors the South
- Slavery is Northern territories- competition for jobs- concept of free labor would die.
- Slavery had no natural limits once in- it would spread.
- "Diabolical Slave Power"
Demise of the Whig Party
- "Know-Nothing party"

- Republican Party
"Know-Nothing"
Nativist hostility toward immigrants and Catholics.
- Drew support away from the Whigs
Republican Party
Founded as a reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act and called for repeal of the K-Neb. Act and Fugitive Slave Act
- Opposed slavery in the territories
- Made up of free-soilers and anti-slave whigs and democrats.
New England Emigrant Aid Company
Abolitionist group in Boston sends antislavery settlers to Kansas.
"Border Ruffians"
Missouri- proslavery cross over and vote illegally- gain power in government.
"Sack of Lawrence"
Proslavery groups burn several buildings and destroy 2 printing presses.
"Pottawatomi Massacre"
Abolitionist James Brown kills 5- strikes terror in Southerners
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Scott (slave) sues for his freedom- ends up in the Supreme Court
Dred Scott v. Sanford - Decision -
Chief Justice Roger Taney (Southern Democrat) writes.
1. No right to sue- blacks aren't US citizens.
2. Scott is property- Congress cannot deprive any person of property without due process of law
3. Miss. Compromise of 1820 is declared unconstitutional.
Effects of the Decision
All western territory is open to slavery
Douglas/Lincoln views on Popular Sovereignty
Douglas supports it- Lincoln opposes slavery in territories
- Lincoln question Douglas- How can he can he reconcile Pop. Sov. with Dred Scott?
Douglas' Response
Response with Free Port Doctrine - slavery could not exist if local citizens didn't pass or enforce laws. To protect slave property.
Douglas wins election- loses Southern Democrat support- Lincoln emerges as a national Republican leader.
Sumner-Brooks Incident
Mass. Senator Sumner attacks the Democrats administration and South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler- Butler's nephew Preston Brooks beats Sumner over the head with a cane. "Cane is fit for a dog".
Provisions of the Slave Act
Denied fugitives the right to a trial by jury
- Those who helped runaway slaves would face heavy penalties
Lecompton Constitution
- A proslavery state constitution for Kansas is submitted- even though most were Republican and against it.

- President Buchanan support it but is defeated in Congress.
John Brown's Raid
Abolitionist who raids the federal arsenal at Harper Ferrys, VA- to arm slaves and lead a slave revolt- he's captured, tried for treason, and hung.

To North- John Brown is a martyr.
To South- Saw it as an attempt to destroy slavery.
"Bleeding Kansas"
- Battle between proslavery and anti-slavery groups over the Kansas Territory.
- New England Emigrant Aid Company
- "Border Ruffians"
- "Sack of Lawrence"
- "Pottawatomi Massacre"