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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Gilded Age
term coined by Mark Twain - period after Civil War, politicians/govt were corrupt, unrestricted capitalism
slang term for political corruption
political machine
an unofficial system of political
organization, most prevalent in American cities between about 1875
and 1920 that was characterized by total "behind-the-scenes" control of municipal politics.
Tweed Ring
notorious city machine in New York City led by "Boss" Tweed
William "Boss" Tweed
first political boss of Tammany Hall in New York City; built control by election and appointment of friends; managed to steal millions of dollars of city funds
contractor would pad bill for city work and "kick back" a percentage to politicians
Thomas Nast
famous editorial cartoonist in New York City; focused on political corruption; instrumental in downfall of Boss Tweed
Tammany Hall
name given to the Democratic political machine that dominated New York City politics from 1854-1934; local machine leaders drew power from their own neighborhoods - great deal of graft was used to "help" the needy in the neighborhood wards
small administrative divisions of a city- usually defined as neighborhoods
people paid to represent a company or a special interest group
smaller divisions of a county broken up into local government districts
Ulysses S. Grant
US President 1869-77; Republican; former Union general; presidency was plagued by suspicion of scandal; Although there is no evidence that Grant himself profited from corruption among his subordinates, he did not take a firm stance against malefactors and failed to react strongly even after their guilt was established.
Rutherford B. Hayes
US President 1887-81; Republican; nicknamed "Old Granny"; election close; Southern Democrats were assured he would end Reconstruction and pull federal troops from the South; rescued presidency from domination of Congress; very HONEST man
the assumed right of elected officials to control political appointments to unelected positions (politicians would put their friends in high positions)
Pendleton Act 1883
established the US Civil Service Commission and placed most federal employees on a merit system; marked the end of the "spoils system"; brought about after a "dissatisfied" office seeked assassinated President Garfield
Chester Arthur
US President 1881-85; Republican; became president when Garfield was assassinated; champion of civil service reform; passed the Pendleton Act; lowered tariff rates; suspended Chinese immigration for ten years
James Garfield
US president 1881; Republican; leader of the "Half Breeds" who supported civil service reform and lenient treatment of the South
farmers, consumers, shippers & importers who argued that a protective tariff was unfair govt interference with the laws of supply and demand - they said that tariffs were subsidies paid to manufacturers out of the pockets of consumers
defended the tariff as a means of nurturing fledgling industries in the US; argued that tariffs kept wages high by shielding them from competition with cheap foreign labor
Benjamin Harrison
US President 1889-93; Republican; favored attempts to freely spend the mounting treasury surplus; helped form Pan American Union; signed Sherman Anti-Trust Act
period before the Civil War
Samuel Clemens/ Mark Twain
popular humorist and writer; wrote vivid & hilarious stories; Tom Sawyer; Huckleberry Finn; his writing bridged the gap between popular and "highbrow" literature
European influenced movement that strove for accurate representation
Stephen Crane
wrote Red Badge of Courage; realist novel that depicted a Union soldier's fear and cowardice under fire
Joseph Pulitzer
published the New York World newspaper; sensationalism; first to use "scare headlines"; introduced serialized comic strips; if he could not find news - Pulitzer made it.
people who choose to live outside their native countries
yellow journalism
sensationalism over facts!
exaggeration; lack of fact checking; some stories were deliberate lies
competing railroad lines would divide traffic services
The Grange
early national farm organization

involved the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages.

one of the first special interest groups
nonprofit stores owned by farmers
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
first federal law to regulate interstate commerce --

declared rates that railroads charged must be reasonable and just; forbade pooling; rr's were required to publish rates; make annual financial reports to federal govt; created the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)
US paper money issued during Civil War; prices began to drop, farmers began to demand inflation
rise in price of goods
general reduction in the level of prices
gold standard
currency is convertible into gold; restricts currency supply (because production of gold does not increase very fast) and drives prices down
Bland-Allison Act
1878; required that the Treasury buy silver and issue currency against it
third party
minor political party
Populist Party
third party in 1892 that won electoral votes; expression of farmers' grievances; comdemned political corruption, newspapers dominated by business, and the condition of labor; Against worldwide adoption of gold standard; did not want to overthrow capitalist system but change the rules
J.P. Morgan
financier and banker; most powerful banker on Wall Street; bought federal bonds below value & made millions; world's first billion dollar corporation
William Jennings Bryan
1896 Democratic presidential candidate; "Cross of Gold" speech blasted supporters of gold standard; gifted orator
William McKinley
US president 1897-01; Republican; launched "trust-busting" era; led US into Spanish-American War
temperance movement
movement in support of total abstinence from alcohol; blamed many of society's ills (joblessness, domestic violence) on alcohol; tried to persuade people to become "teetotalers"
Susan B. Anthony
civil rights leader; led effort to grant women the right to vote;
Karl Marx/socialism
German political philosopher; writings formed basis of communism & socialism; THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & DAS KAPITAL; predicted capitalism was doomed; fewer would control wealth while more people would become proletariat (people without property) Eventually proletariat would rise up and take control of society
conspicuous consumption
the use of vast resources just for show; the production of excess unwanted goods, which must be consumed to justify continued production
irrelevent amendments to laws