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55 Cards in this Set

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Temperance
Shift from moral to political action. American Temperance Society in 1826. Persuade drinkers to pledge total abstinence. More than a million members after 10 years.
Henry David Thoreau
"Walden" "Civil Disobedience" - practice plain living.
Transcendentalism
Ralph Wlado Emerson - things that rose above the limits of reason.
Sojourner Truth
African American female abolitionist. Traveled country.
Unitarians
Denomination emphasizing the kindness of God, goodness of humans, and ability to reason and conscience over truth. All eligable for salvation.
Universalists
Stressed slavation for all mena nd women. Too merciful to condemn anybody to enternal punishment.
Utopian community
Plans for perfect communities. Economic and social objectives, but religious nature was most long lived. Brook Farm, New Harmony two flourished the most.
Walt Whitman
"Leave of Grass" - served as nurse during Civil Warq
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons moving westward. Planned new community, became cheif and theocratic authority.
Know Nothing Party
Order of the Star Spangled Banner - secret rituatls, fraternal order. Restrictions on immigration, immigrants and Catholics excluded from public office. Successful.
Lowell System
Factory system in Mass. Brought spinning and weaving using power machinery. Designed model communities that would rewards "Moral" behavior.
Manumission
Formally freeing someone from slavery.
Eli Whitney
Cotton gin, interhcnageable parts for goods.
Herman Melville
"Moby Dick"
Nativism
Anti-immigration behavior in response to the German and Irish immigration. Fears of voting blocs, and unfamiliar religious practices.
Steamboat
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston - first steam-powered boat. Not affected by wind or current and made water transportation more reliable.
Working Men's Party
First labor party formed in 1828. Ineffective from inexperienced leaders. Manipulation by professional politicians.
Turner's Rebellion in 1831
Violent revolt of African Americans. Nat Tuener was the leader and religious fanatic. Small group killed. Military took strong action.
Specie Circular
1837 Jackson goverment would accept only hard currency for payment in goverment lands. Prevent fraud for bank notes and credit.
Spoils System
Dispensing goverment jobs as a reward for party loyalty. Argued that it promoted government corruption.
Tariff of 1816
Indended to protect U.S. industry after the embargo ended. Tariff became sectional issue with the North favoring and the south disapproving.
Trail of Tears
Cherokee trek from Georgia to Oklahoma. Forced to move in 1838 after Jackson left office. Caused over 4000 deaths.
Daniel Webster
Orator and laywer and senator of Mass. Defended federal goverment that said state couldn't nullify federal law. Went against Robert Hayne. "Liberty and union, one and inseparable, now and forever."
Webster-Hayne debate
Robert Hayne argued that government edangered the Union - concept of federal goverment as 'agent' of state. States could judge if 'agent' went out of bounds.
Worcester vs. Georgia
Cherokees and Georgia. Cherokee were a sovereign nation and the 'leaving bills' weren't relevant. Native americans forced to leave.
Abolition
Belief that slavery should be abolished. AMerican colonization Society - freedom for African Americans.
American COlonization Society
Promoted the idea of freeing slaves. 1822 established Monrovia, Liberia. Colonization proved never to be practical because of expanding numbers of African Americans in U.S.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
Mass. Supreme Court ruled - forming atrade union not illegal. Imoprtant victory for labor movement.
James Fenimore Cooper
"The Spy" "The Leather-stocking Tales" "Last Words of Mohicans" Characters pitting themselves against nature and winning.
Dorothea Dix
Published report after examining jails and poorhouses. National attention and states changed. Pressed for changes in prisons and asylums.
Frederick Douglass
Former slave who spoke out against the brutality that he faced. "Narrative of life of Frederick Douglass" Left country to avoid capture.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendental movement. Intuitive ways of thinking to discover ones inner spirit and finding God in nature. Attacked materialism.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
"Scarlet Letter" "House of the Seven Gables" Wrote of sin, pride, secret, guilt.
Charles Finney
Preached - generated many conversions. Loneliness was a decision that kept many from converting. Transformed revivals into communal experiences. Teached at Oberlin College
William Lloyd Garrison
Newspaper published "The Liberator" advocated abolition of slavery. Burned constitution believing it was pro-slavery. Estbalished American Anti-Slavery Society.
Horace Mann
Reforms in public education. First state-supported "Public School". Defended school system as equal opportunity.
Susan and Angelina Grimke
South Carolina sisters - dedicated to anti-slavery, feminism, and reform work. "Appeal to the Christian Women of the South" "Letter of the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes."
Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints)
Joseph Smith founded. Moved westward to IL, Brigham Young took over afterwards and moved to Great Salt Lake utah
Lucretia Mott
Adovates of women's rights. "Delcaration of Sentiments" Worked with Susan B. Anthony.
Romanticism
Spirit over reason and logic. Emphasis on individualism.
Second Great Awakening
Spirit influenced American life. Rev. Timothy Dwight, Charles Finney.
Senecea Falls Convention (1848)
Elixabeth cady Tatnton and Lucretia mott. Feminist organized convention.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
First women's activists.
John Quincy Adams
First secretary of state, then president. Aksed money fro internal improvements for manufacturing. Served only one term.
Anti-Masons
Opposed fraternal order. Entered in 1832. First group to hold national cominating convention.
Nicholas Biddle
President of Bank of U.S. Jacksons suspected him of abusing power and serving wealthy. Arrogance factor.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina senator. Vice President to Jackson. War hawk for nationalist and states' rights to sectionalism.
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
State of Georgia passes law requiring Cherokee to migrate WEst. Supreme Court ruled Cherokees could stay in Georgia.
"corrupt bargain"
Accustation of secret political deal between Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams. Adams won presidental election. Clay secretary of state.
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe's presidency. RIvals for presidency flock during beginning of Monroe's second term. ONLY one political party - why it was 'good feelings'
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe's presidency. RIvals for presidency flock during beginning of Monroe's second term. ONLY one political party - why it was 'good feelings'
William Henry Harrison
President 1840. Former governor of Indiana territory. Depicted as a plain and simple man though he was a Whig.
Internal Improvements
Maysville Rd. Under Jackson - road through Kentucky, and linked to National road in Cincinnati. Set prececent that there were limits of federal funds. Railroads built later.
Maysville Road Bill
Internal improvements using federal funds vetoed by Jackson. Was introducted by Henry Clay.
Panic of 1837
Economic depression, failure to renew Bank of U.S. Banks closing doors - Whigs blamed democrats. Allowed little federal imput into economy.