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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Civil Liberties
Habeas Corpus- Shall not be arrested without knowing why, trial by jury- Lincoln suspends it, not a tyrant because his actions are defendable by the constitution.

Ex Parte Milligan- Supreme Court ruled that the government had acted inappropriately in Indiana where, during the war, certain civilians had been subjected to a military trial. Declared that such procedures could be used iff civilian courts were unavailable.
Economic changes
Borrowed $2.6 billion obtained through government bonds. Eventually raised tariffs, income tax, and excise taxes. Industrial permanence sped up the consolidation of the North's manufacturing business- North is financed.
Morill Tariff Act
Homestead Act
Morill Land Grant Act
Pacific Railway Act
Morill Tariff Act
(1861) Raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufacturers. Its passage initiated a republican program of high protective tarrifs to help industrialists.
Homestead Act
(1862) Promoted settlement of the Great Plains by offering parcels of 160 acres of free public land to whatever person or family would farm that land for at least 5 years.
Morill Land Grant Act
(1862) Encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges.
Pacific Railway Act
(1862) Authorized the bulding of a transcontinental railroad over a Northern route in order to link the economies of California and the western territories with the eastern states.
Women and the end of slavery
Women were needed in the absense of men and had to step into the labor vacuum. Women assumed the roles of farmers, factory workers, military nurses, and volunteers in soldiers aid societies. Women now had nursing and an impetus to obtain equal rights.

4 million slaves are freed.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
10% plan provided full presidential pardons would be granted to most southerners who:
1. Took an oath allegience to the Union
2. Accepted emancipation- 10% loyalty oath

A state government could be reestablished and accepted as legitimate by the US President as soon as at least 10% of the voters in that state took the loyalty oath.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
Proposed for more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction. The bill required 50% of the voters of a state to take a loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution. Lincoln 'pocket-vetos' the bill. (Puts it away and forgets it during the last 10 days of Congressional session).
Freedmen's Bureau
Early welfare agency- providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made destitute by war- blacks and homeless whites. Helped establish 3,000 schools and colleges and taught 200,000 blacks to read. General Sherman promised slaves that joined his army after the way, 40 acres of land and a mule.
Black Codes
1) Prohibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy land.

2) Placed freed men into semibondage by forcing them to sign work contracts.

3) Blacks cannot testify in court against whites.
Republican Response
Better for blacks, worse for whites. Most shift to radical side and support civil rights.
War in the west
Union Goal- control of the Mississippi River
Commander- Ulysses S. Grant

Fort Henry and Fort Donelson- Stunning victories, 14,000 confederates taken prisoner and opened up the state of Mississippi to Union.

Shiloh- Forced confederates to retreat after terrible losses.

New Orleans- Union captures New Orleans under the naval comman of David Farragut.
Conscription- Compulsary enrollment, especially in the armed forces. Men aged 20-45 were eligible. One could avoid draft by paying a $300 exemption fee or finding a substitute.

Irish oppose draft because they were poor immigrants in unskilled jobs, and freed blacks could take that from them.
Military in the North and South
- North -
Population of 22 million, 5 1/2 million of which were whites

800,000 immigrants enlisted in the Union

180,000 blacks brought over through emancipation

Command of the navy- giving them contol over rivers and territorial waters.

- South -
Had to fight only defensive to win

Had to move troops and supplies

Long indented coastline northern border to bloackade

Eperienced military leaders

High troop morale.
Economy in the North and South
- North-
Controlled most banking and the country's capital

85% of factories manufactured goods- 70% of railroads

65% of farmlands

skilled clerks and book-keepers.

- South -
Overseas financial help through the demand for cotton.
Politics in the North and South
- North -
Strong central government

strong public support of Lincoln as president.

- South -
Hope that the North would turn against Lincoln

hope that the North would give up because war was costly.
Irony of Confederate Government and Jefferson Davis' desire to increase power- how does it hinder the confederacy?
To win the war they needed a strong central government. Ironically, that was exactly what they were up against.

The states withheld support to help themselves- the confederacy was also issued more than $1 billion in paper money.
What internal problems did the South face?
Because of a weak central government, Southern governors wanted to help their own states rather than contribute to the confederacy.
First Battle of Bull Run
July 1861

30,000 federal troops attack the South near Bull Run Creek at Manassas Junction, VA. Just as the Union seems close to victory, the confederate forces couterattack and send the Union troops back to washington. The illusuon of a short war was shattered.
Scott's Plan (3 Part strategy)
Led by General Winfield Scott-
1. Use the US Navy to blockade southern ports (the Anaconda Plan) and thereby cut off essential supplies from reaching the South.
2. Divide the confederacy in 2 by taking control of the Mississippi River.
3. Raise and train an army 500,000 strong to take to Richmond.
Peninsula Campaign
March 1862

Union- General George B. McClellan
Confederacy- General Robert E. Lee

5 months into battle, the troop (of McClellan) was forced to retreat and was ordered back to the Potomac where he was replaced by General John Pope.
Relationship between Lincoln and McClellan?
McClellan tested Lincoln's patience via the many delays during discipline and training.
2nd Battle of Bull Run?
Lee draws Pope into a trap, struck the enemy's flank and sent the Union army backward to Bull Run. Pope withdrew to defenses of Washington.
Sept. 1862

Lee attacks enemy territory in Maryland, hoped that a major confederate victory in the North would convince Britain to officially support and recognize the confederacy. McClellan knew Lee's Battle Plan and intercepted the invading confederates. 22,000 men were killed in battle and Lee's army retreated to VA. Ends in a draw.
Why did Lincoln remove McClellan and Lincoln's plans, and Lincoln's plans after the Antietam 'victory'?
McClellan failed to pursue Lee's weakened and retreating army, so Lincoln was compelled to remove him.

He used the partial triumph to announce plans for the Emancipation Proclamation.
Dec. 1862

Con.- Robert E. Lee
Union- Ambrose Burnside

Union suffered 12,000 casualties, conf. only lost 5,000.

Technological advances force change in tactics- no clear winner of the war.
Ironclads were ships with iron plates for armor. The confederate ship was the Merrimac and the Union ship was the Monitor.

Ended in a draw, the Monitor prevented the South's new weapon from seriously challenging the US naval blockade. Revolutionize the future of naval warfare.
Statistics of the North and South
North- Union, color- Blue, leader- Abraham Lincoln, nicknames- yankees, yanks

South- Confederacy, gray, Jefferson Davis, Rebels (Rebs)

Civil war fought between 1861-1865
Why do some historians refer to the Civil war as the 2nd American Revolution?
It transformed American society by accelerating industrializations and modernizations in the North and largely destroying the plantation systems in the south- slavery is ended

* First shots fired at Fort Sumter in South Carolina on April 12, 1861
How did Lincoln force the South to start the war?
By sending food and other necessities to the small federal troops at Fort Sumter.
How did Lincoln become autocratic?
He made executive decisions despite having no authorization of Congress. For example, he called for 75,000 volunteers, authorized spending for the war, suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus (must have a trial by jury, due process of law, and give reasons for a person's arrest).
What was the reaction of the Upper South after Fort Sumter?
4 states seceded (North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Arkansas)
joined the confederacy after.
4 border states, how was Lincoln able to keep the border states from seceding?
Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, and Maryland.

Slave states that didn't secede were known as border states.

Reluctant to push for early slave emancipation.
Republican party controlled Congess.

Radical Faction- championed the cause of immediate abolition.

Moderate Faction- Free-soilers who were concerned with economic opportunities for whites.

Copperheads- Northern Democrats who opposed war and wanted negotiated peace.