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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
(look to Oregon/Willamette Valley and California/Sacramento Valley)
Middle class movement (cost $200-300) "squatters"- settle public land without paying or purchased for a low price. Overland Trails- Oregon, California, Santa Fe, Mormon trails.
Wagon Trains
Start at St. Joseph, Independence, Missouri, Council Bluff Iowa.
Caravans of pioneers support each other
Trip lasted 4 months (15 miles/day)
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
Pierce buys Southern sections of New Mexico/Arizona ($10 mill) from Mexico.
East-West rail lines
Stimulates the settlement of agricultural development of the midwest. Chicago- hub for grain shipment (replaces New Orleans)
- Indirectly stimulates Industrial development
- Stimulates small town growth.
San Francisco and Mining
Becomes a major city- main supply depot for miners. Violence becomes a major activity- vigilante committees formed to keep order.

Later gold and silver discovered in California to specialization.
Military Campaign
General Stephen Kearney takes New Mexico territory and South California.
John C. Fremont- Overthrows Mexican rule in North California- creates bear flag republic in Cali.
Taylor- crosses Rio Grande into Mexico- wins at Buena Vista.
Gen. Winfield Scott- (14,000 troops) Takes Vera Cruz and Mexico city.
Advantages of Railroads
Swift (40-50 mph) comfortable upholstered seats/couches.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
David Wilmot proposed to forbid slavery in any of the new territories acquired from Mexico (passed House twice- defeated in Senate)
-Acquisition of western lands renewed the sectional debate over slavery.
Ostend Manifesto
1852- Franklin Pierce- elected president- pro southern
Secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain- was leaked to press- outraged antislavery congressman- Pierce forced to drop.
William Walker Expedition
Took over Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire- it collapsed.
Purchased from Russia in 1867. Will Seward- Sec. of State ($7 mill) opposed "Seward's icebox"
Great American Desert
Area between Mississippi Valley and the Pacific. Coast area passed over- felt it was too dry.
Mountain Men
Earliest exploration- James Beckwourth, Jim Bridger, Kit Carison, Jebediah Smith, John Jacob Astor
- Involved in lucrative fur trade
- Provided early info on frontier and trails.
- "Legends in their own day" amazing exploits
Breakdown, lack of water, difficult trails, disease, depression, occasional Indian raids.
Donner Party
caught in a blizzard and turned to cannibalism.
Expanding Economy
Emergence of the market economy.
Agricultural Technology
Farmers shift from self-sufficiency to specialization.
John Deere
Steel tipped plow/ Cyrus McCormick reaper- leads to greater agricultural output. Agriculture has a negative impact on environment- farm wastefully, wear out the soil and then move on.
Industrial Technology
Elias Howe- invented the sewing machine that took clothing production out of the house and into a factory.

Samuel FB Morse- invented the telegraph- used to make it easier to communicate in business. Business and transportation go hand-in-hand with the growth of railroads.
First Big Business
Railroads are nations first big business- 1840-1860 miles of track went from 3,000 to 30,000
Tyler (outgoing President) pushed for annexation again. Congress passes a joint resolutions- Texas is annexed.

Polk is left dealing with Mexico's reaction.
Oregon Fever
5000 settlers travel the Oregon trail
Immediate causes of the Mexican War (1846-47)
Polk orders General Zachary Taylor toward the Rio Grande (area claimed by Mexico) Mexican army crosses Rio Grande- kills 11 Americans.
Belief of Manifest Destiny and Mission
It was the "divine mission" of the US to expand its borders
To extend its power and civilization across North America.
Texas Annexation (1820s)
Mexican gvt encourages American settlement (land grants)
Stephen Austin leads migration- brings in 300 families
1829- Mexico outlaws slavery and requires immigrants to convert Catholic religion
Mexico closed to immigration- ignored by Americans
Republic of Texas
"Lonestar Republic" created 1836
Applies for annexation as a state. Presidents Jackson and Van Buren put off the request- political opposition in the North saw it as an attempt to expand slavery. Threat of war with Mexico. Tyler atempts in 1844, but rejected by the Senate.
Consequences of War
- Treaty of Guadlupe Hildago/Mexican Cession 1848

- Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Treaty of Guadlupe Hidalgo
Settles Mexican war-peace treaty. Because of Mexican Cession- Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. US receives Mexican cession (Cal, Northern Mexican Territory) (Today it's California, Az, NM, Utah, Nevda and Colorado) US pays $15 mill and pays claims to US citizens who had claims against Mexico.
"54 40 or fight!"
Line between Oregon territory and Russian Alaska.
No fight- Polk compromises with Britain- divided the Oregon territory at 49th parallel (line established by LA purchase)
Texas Annexation (1834) (1836)
-Santa Anna becomes dictator- enforces laws in Texas
- Sam Houston leads revolt- declares Texas independent
- 1836- Santa Anna attacks and defeats the Americans at the Battle of the Alamo (San Antonio)
Oregon Boundary Dispute
Great Britain and the US both claim Oregon Territory

1840s- American farmers and missionaries settle in the Willamette Valley.
Railroads provide:
Democratic promise- one class of travel (Europe was classed)
Election of 1844
Whigs- Henry Clay
Democrats- "dark horse" James K. Polk- wins the election

Favors Texas annexation Manifest Destiny
"54 40 or fight" Campaign slogan.
Causes of the Mexican war
Polk attempts diplomacy with Mexico-sends John Slidell to negotiate
- Offers to buy New Mexico and California from Mexico.
Mexico- southern border of Texas is Nueces River.
Us- Southern border of Texas is the Rio Grande.
Drawbacks of Railroads
Horse drawn- first locomotives sparks on clothing. Individual railroads used different track gauge scheduling is a problem (no standard time)

Telegraph reduces delays.
Gold discovered in 1848 in Sierra Nevadas. 1849 "Gold Rush" to Cali- creation of instant mining towns. Rise in population makes slavery an issue in California.
Texas Annexation (Battle of San Jacinto)
Houston surprises the Mexicans- Santa Anna is forced to recognize Texas Independence.
Justification for expansion
*Acquire new markets in Asia to agricultural surpluses.
- Oregon and California needed for harbors
*Preserve an agricultural society
- expand the land (industrialism leads to class conflict)
*America had the right to westward movement- to displace uncivilized or European people (early republicans)
*Economic Opportunity- Response to panic of 1837
- Farmers saw markets for products
- Poor saw it as a chance to get ahead