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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Biosphere
consists of all environments on earth that support life
Ecosystem
consists of all organism living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which organisms interact
Community
all the organisms living in an ecosystem
Population
interacting group of individuals of one species
Organism
individual living thing
Organ System
ex. circulatory, digestive, or nervous system

consists of several organs that work together in performing specific functions
Organ
the things that work together in an organ system to perform specific functions
Tissues
make up organs; each has a specific function
Cell
unit of living matter separated from its environment by a boundary called a membrane [unit of life]
Organelle
structure that performs a specific function in a cell [not alive]
Molecule
cluster of atoms held together by a chemical
Atom
smallest particle of ordinary matter
Producers
provide food for a typical environment

plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Consumers
eat plants and other animals
Decomposers
bacteria, fungi, and small animals in soil

act as recyclers--change complex dead matter into simple mineral nutrients that plants can use
Emergent properties
"the whole is greater than the sum of its parts"

with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that result from the arrangement and interactions of the component parts
System
combination of components that form a more complex organization
Prokaryotic Cell
much simpler and usually much smaller than eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic Cell
subdivided by internal membranes into many different functional compartments, or organelles, including the nucleus that houses the cell's DNA
Species
term used for a particular type of organism
Taxonomy
branch of bio that names and classifies species
Kingdoms
diversity of life was divided into 5 kingdoms but there has been a reevaluation of the # and boundaries
Domains
3 overarching groups
Bacteria
consists of prokaryotes
Archaea
consists of prokaryotes; live in extreme places
Eukarya
eukaryotes; organisms with eukaryotic cells

opposite properties from prokaryotes

divided into four kingdoms: protist, plants, fungi, and animals
Prokaryotes
organisms with prokaryotic cells; most are unicellular and microscopic
Theories
comprehensive ideas [synthesizing comprehensive idea based on many observations]
Natural Selection
a mechanism for evolution

"occurs as heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others."
Individual Variation
individuals in a population vary in many heritable traits
Overproduction and Competition
with more individuals than the environment can support, competition is inevitable
Unequal Reproductive Success
individuals are unequal in their likelihood of surviving and reproducing
Evolutionary Adaptation
accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time
Discovery Science
describing nature

data = verifiable observations and measurements

inductive reasoning
Hypothesis-Based Science
explaining nature

deductive reasoning

test using "If...then" logic
Hypothesis
tentative answer to some question--an explanation on trial

must be testable and falsifiable
Controlled Experiment
one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group
Goal of Technology
generally to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose