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70 Cards in this Set

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1. The first tetrapods (legged vertebrates) probably evolved these limbs to:
a. capture food.
b. enter the dry land.
c. swim better.
d. escape predators.
e. all of the above.
d. escape predators.
2. Which person(s) would you associate with the “watchmaker” analogy?
a. Thomas Huxley.
b. William Paley.
c. Rev. Jerry Falwell.
d. Intelligent Design advocates.
e. all but a.
e. all but a.
3. Mutation is the most important means of producing genetic variability for:
a. eukaryotes.
b. prokaryotes and viruses.
c. prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
d. viruses and eukaryotes.
e. angiosperms.
b. prokaryotes and viruses.
4. The modern definition of evolution is:
a. reproductive isolation.
b. polyploidy.
c. change in appearance.
d. change in allele frequencies.
e. immutability of species.
d. change in allele frequencies.
5. Which is false about the nucleus?
a. It contains the DNA.
b. It evolved by engulfing other cells.
c. It is in eukaryotes.
d. It protects from mutagenesis.
e. It is not present in prokaryotes.
b. It evolved by engulfing other cells.
6. Coelomate animals:
a. are only protostomes.
b. are only deuterostomes.
c. evolved independently several times.
d. are only ecdysozoans.
e. are only lophotrochozoans.
c. evolved independently several times.
7. Which diplobalstic animal defecates through its mouth?
a. ctenophore.
b. comb jelly.
c. sponge.
d. sea anemone.
e. all of the above.
d. sea anemone.
8. Which is true?
a. birds are more closely related to mammals than to crocodiles.
b. fungi are more closely related to plants than animals.
c. modern jawless fish are more closely related to ostracoderms than placoderms.
d. plants are more closely related to green algae than diatoms.
e. all of the above.
d. plants are more closely related to green algae than diatoms.
9. The diversification of species during the Cambrian Revolution is thought to be due to:
a. methods of escaping active predators.
b. the development of an atmosphere with abundant oxygen.
c. the appearance of dry land.
d. mutation.
e. prokaryotic evolution.
a. methods of escaping active predators.
10. The first amphibians are thought to have evolved:
a. from chondricthyes.
b. in freshwater streams.
c. so they could escape from drying stagnant pools.
d. to eat insects.
e. none of the above.
b. in freshwater streams.
11. The biologist who defended Darwin and was known as “Darwin’s bulldog” was:
a. Herbert Spencer.
b. Samuel Wilberforce.
c. Jean Baptiste Lamarck.
d. Thomas Huxley.
e. Captain (later Admiral) Fitzroy.
d. Thomas Huxley.
12. Bryophyte life cycles exhibit:
a. more time in the diploid stage.
b. internal fertilization.
c. more time in the haploid stage.
d. seed formation.
e. pollination.
c. more time in the haploid stage.
13. The notochord is:
a. found in echinoderms.
b. is the primitive vertebral column.
c. is the main nerve in insects.
d. is still found in adult vertebrates.
e. is a cartilaginous rod for the attachment of muscles.
e. is a cartilaginous rod for the attachment of muscles.
14. Hexapods are:
a. deuterostomes.
b. a relatively rare group of organisms.
c. a group of protists ancestral to fungi.
d. are pseudocoelomates.
e. none of the above.
e. none of the above.
15. Sympatric speciation
a. seldom occurs.
b. occurs, but its frequency is still debated.
c. requires geographic isolation.
d. is known only in insects.
e. none of the above.
b. occurs, but its frequency is still debated.
16. Human allergies and asthma
a. may result from unclean living conditions.
b. are always genetic.
c. may result from eliminating our exposure to microbes and developing immunities.
d. are not an important health concern.
e. are common in the Bavarian countryside.
c. may result from eliminating our exposure to microbes and developing immunities.
17. An example of evolutionary medicine is:
a. cholera being less virulent when water is unpolluted.
b. restricted use of antibiotics.
c. allowing HIV infected people, who have been treated, to go untreated to allow the wild-type to build up.
d. not shielding people from exposure to bacteria.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
18. Darwin advocated:
a. evolution of acquired traits.
b. the immutability of species.
c. Mendelian genetics.
d. the ability of populations to overproduce offspring.
e. none of the above.
d. the ability of populations to overproduce offspring.
19. The observation that the wild-type of HIV reproduces faster than drug-resistant strains is an example of:
a. the costs and benefits of different adaptations.
b. the advantages of the eukaryotic life cycle.
c. genetic drift.
d. sexual recombination.
e. all of the above.
a. the costs and benefits of different adaptations.
20. The inability of viruses to reproduce without a eukaryotic host indicates that:
a. they are an ancient life form.
b. they are alive.
c. they are not the most primitive life form, if they are alive.
d. they cannot evolve.
e. none of the above.
c. they are not the most primitive life form, if they are alive.
21. Angiosperms
a. produce seeds.
b. often depend on insects for pollination.
c. may have contributed to the demise of dinosaurs.
d. are less drought resistant than gymnosperms.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
22. Darwin said that:
a. variation arose through mutation.
b. variation arose through environmental stresses.
c. artificial selection has no analogy in nature.
d. heritable variation is necessary for natural selection.
e. nature is red in tooth and claw.
d. heritable variation is necessary for natural selection.
23. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:
a. refers to a population without selection.
b. assumes a population is panmictic.
c. produces equilibrial gene frequencies in one generation.
d. assumes random mating.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
24. A common argument(s) of evolution opponents is:
a. even a simple cell is so complex that it is not reducible.
b. the ages of Biblical patriarchs proves the earth is only 6000 years old.
c. species are immutable.
d. science has not produced life or a new species.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
25. Reproductive isolation is
a. best achieved via post-zygotic mechanisms.
b. tends to increase over evolutionary time.
c. is unimportant for speciation.
d. does not have to occur after allopatry to produce new species.
e. all of the above.
b. tends to increase over evolutionary time.
26. Which would lead to natural selection?
a. Individuals differ in size and bigger individuals survive better and size is not heritable.
b. Dog size at birth is heritable, but neither large nor small puppies have greater survival.
c. A bird’s tail length is heritable, but tail length is not related to survival or reproductive success.
d. Large body size is related to survival and reproductive output and large body size is due to nutrition.
e. none of the above.
b. Dog size at birth is heritable, but neither large nor small puppies have greater survival.
27. A sea cucumber is:
a. a multicellular protist.
b. a deuterostome with a notochord.
c. related to radially symmetric deuterostomes with internal calcified plates.
d. an angiosperm living in tidal marshes.
e. a protostome.
c. related to radially symmetric deuterostomes with internal calcified plates.
28. Which is true?
a. Amphibians generally breed in water.
b. Some amphibians breathe through their skin.
c. Amphibians have been giants longer than 6 feet.
d. Amphibians appeared in the Devonian.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
29. Which statement is false?
a. Mammals and insects perform the greatest range of ecological activities on land.
b. Most microbes are beneficial to us.
c. Butterflies have the greatest species diversity of all animals.
d. Feathers are modified reptilian scales.
e. Protists are paraphyletic.
c. Butterflies have the greatest species diversity of all animals.
30. Which statement is false?
a. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.
b. Fungi cannot be predators.
c. Fungi evolved in the Silurian seas.
d. Fungi have a complex life cycle different from any other animal or plant.
e. Fungi are composed of hyphae.
b. Fungi cannot be predators.
31. Reptilian eggs are an evolutionary innovation because:
a. they are laid on land.
b. a shell requires a chorion.
c. desiccation is resisted due to scales.
d. desiccation is resisted due to a shell.
e. all but c.
e. all but c.
32. Tunicates:
a. are sponges.
b. have a bilaterally symmetric larva.
c. are vertebrates.
d. are protostomes.
e. all of the above.
b. have a bilaterally symmetric larva.
33. Diploblastic:
a. is a trait of sponges.
b. is a trait of protostomes.
c. is a trait of deuterostomes.
d. is a type of embryonic development.
e. is a trait of cnidarians and ctenophores.
e. is a trait of cnidarians and ctenophores.
34. What trait of life is not observed in viruses?
a. controlled metabolism.
b. cell membrane.
c. ability to reproduce.
d. special regions of body.
e. none of the above.
a. controlled metabolism.
35. What are you?
a. triploblastic.
b. a chordate.
c. a deuterostome.
d. a coelomate.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
1. Darwin's idea of evolution by natural selection requires:
a. a trait that is variable;
b. a trait that must be heritable;
c. a trait that arises from mutation;
d. a trait that influences survival or reproduction;
e. a, b and d.
e. a, b and d.
2. The unique characteristic of eukaryotes is:
a. a cell wall.
b. DNA maintained in a nucleus.
c. radial symmetry.
d. photosynthesis.
e. a diversity of metabolic pathways.
b. DNA maintained in a nucleus.
3. Adult starfish are radially symmetric, therefore, they are:
a. coelenterates.
b. ctenophores.
c. porifera.
d. brachiopods.
e. deuterostomes.
e. deuterostomes.
4. The most important source of genetic variability in prokaryotes is:
a. mutation.
b. mitosis.
c. asexual reproduction.
d. sexual reproduction.
e. conjugation.
a. mutation.
5. A possible source of extinction in dinosaurs is:
a. egg predation by mammals.
b. an asteroid or comet.
c. angiosperms.
d. volcanic activity.
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
6. Evolution only occurs when:
a. natural selection is operating.
b. a population is small.
c. gene frequencies change.
d. mutation takes place.
e. sexual reproduction is operating.
c. gene frequencies change.
7. Characteristics of life include:
a. molecular integrity;
b. efficient use of resources through enzymes;
c. exact duplication during reproduction;
d. special regions in molecular droplet;
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
8. Protists:
a. can be multicellular;
b. are paraphyletic;
c. can be colonial;
d. are the main photosynthesizers in the marine environment;
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
9. The origin of life did not depend on:
a. high energy sources;
b. water;
c. oxygen;
d. ammonia;
e. methane.
c. oxygen;
10. The great diversification of multicellular life appears in the:
a. Ordovician.
b. Silurian.
c. Carboniferous.
d. Cambrian.
e. Cretaceous.
d. Cambrian.
11. Which statement is true?
a. mammalian hair is reptilian scales.
b. reptilian scales are fish scales.
c. bird feathers are reptilian scales.
d. the vertebral column is the notochord.
e. protostomes are the only animals with a coelem.
c. bird feathers are reptilian scales.
12. Darwinism tells us that:
a. humans are special because they are the culmination of evolution;
b. it is alright for some people to subjugate others because more fit individuals are superior;
c. no life form is special and all are doomed to extinction;
d. "nature is red in tooth and claw";
e. all of the above.
c. no life form is special and all are doomed to extinction;
13. Tracheophytes are:
a. plants without vascularization;
b. mosses and fungi;
c. club mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms;
d. the oldest plants;
e. always have flowers
c. club mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms;
14. Fungi are more closely related to:
a. bacteria.
b. slime molds.
c. ciliates.
d. animals.
e. diatoms.
d. animals.
15. To be considered a species depends on:
a. a distinct appearance;
b. reproductive isolation;
c. a unique mutation;
d. geographic isolation;
e. all of the above.
b. reproductive isolation;
16. All mammals possess:
a. a placenta.
b. live birth.
c. a pouch (marsupium).
d. scales.
e. mammary glands.
e. mammary glands.
17. What continent had a very unique fauna, because it was isolated between 30 and 3 million years ago?
a. Africa.
b. North America.
c. South America.
d. Australia.
e. Eurasia.
c. South America.
18. Which statement is false?
a. Mammals are monophyletic.
b. Birds are the direct descendants of dinosaurs.
c. Most birds and insects are the only organisms with two well-developed modes of mobility.
d. Mammals and insects are the most successful multicellular taxa, because they possess a wide range of lifestyles and can inhabit a wide range of habitats.
e. Prokaryotes have the greatest variety of metabolic pathways.
a. Mammals are monophyletic.
19. What two adaptations permitted reptiles to better utilize the terrestrial environment than amphibians?
a. Stronger jaws and an egg with a shell.
b. Better eyesight and stronger jaws.
c. Scales and a more efficient circulatory system.
d. Scales and an egg with a shell.
e. Stronger jaws and a more efficient digestive system.
d. Scales and an egg with a shell.
20. Conjugation in single cell organisms is:
a. a means of sharing resources between daughter cells;
b. a means of disease transmission;
c. a means of exchanging genetic material as in sexual reproduction;
d. a means of repairing cellular damage;
e. none of the above.
c. a means of exchanging genetic material as in sexual reproduction;
21. Gymnosperms were better at living in the terrestrial environment, because:
a. they are tracheophytes;
b. they produce seeds;
c. their haploid lifestage is "housed" on the adult plant;
d. they are wind pollinated;
e. all of the above.
e. all of the above.
22. Angiosperms are:
a. plants without flowers;
b. not tracheophytes;
c. plants without seeds;
d. plants that are often pollinated by a protostome;
e. none of the above.
d. plants that are often pollinated by a protostome;
23. Darwin failed because he:
a. believed that mutation was the most important source of genetic variation.
b. believed that heritability was based on the combination of particles.
c. believed that the Earth was only 6000 years old.
d. did not read his mail from Austria.
e. did not publicly defend his ideas.
d. did not read his mail from Austria.
24. Evolution is:
a. only one of several plausible explanations for the origin of species.
b. the unifying principle of all biology.
c. only a hypothesis.
d. as simple as a change in appearance.
e. not dependent changes in gene frequency.
b. the unifying principle of all biology.
25. The following are prokaryotes:
a. bacteria, archaea, and viruses.
b. diatoms.
c. bacteria and archaea.
d. ciliates.
e. bacteria and viruses.
c. bacteria and archaea.
26. Haplontic means that:
a. the diploid stage is dominant.
b. the diploid and haploid stages are equal in duration.
c. the protist is found in the ocean's surface.
d. the adult is radially symmetrical, but larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.
e. the haploid stage is dominant.
e. the haploid stage is dominant.
27. These are living "missing links":
a. coelocanth, shrews, and slime molds.
b. onycophorans, snakes and ciliates.
c. horseshoe crabs, tuatara, and coelocanth.
d. shrews, diatoms, and kelp.
e. dinosaurs, tunicates and archaea.
c. horseshoe crabs, tuatara, and coelocanth.
28. Archaea are well known as:
a. eukaryotes.
b. multicellular.
c. early animals.
d. living in harsh environments.
e. photosynthesizers.
d. living in harsh environments.
29. A tunicate-like organism led to:
a. lancelets when they developed jaws.
b. fish when they developed jaws.
c. ostracoderms when they developed jaws.
d. lancelets through neotony.
e. ostracoderms wen they developed a vertebral column.
d. lancelets through neotony.
30. The unique characteristic possessed by the first vertebrates was:
a. a notochord.
b. a bony vertebral column.
c. gill slits.
d. a cartilaginous vertebral column.
e. body armor.
d. a cartilaginous vertebral column.
31. The body armor of ostracoderms and placoderms became:
a. the bony skeleton of modern fish.
b. the scales of modern fish.
c. the "sand paper" in the skin of chondricthyes.
d. the jaws of placoderms.
e. the gill slits of bony fishes.
c. the "sand paper" in the skin of chondricthyes.
32. The chronological sequence of human ancestors is:
a. Homo ergaster, H. neanderthalensis, H. erectus, H. sapiens.
b. Australopithecus africanus, Homo erectus, H. ergaster, H. sapiens.
c. Australopithecus africanus, A. aferensis, Homo erectus, H. spaiens.
d. Australopithecus aferensis, Homo ergaster, H. erectus, H. neanderthalenis.
e. Homo neanderthalensis, H. ergaster, H. erectus, H. sapiens.
d. Australopithecus aferensis, Homo ergaster, H. erectus, H. neanderthalenis.
33. Which statement is true?
a. Jaws are modified gill slit supports.
b. Mammal limbs are modified fish fin bones.
c. Lungs are modified swim bladders.
d. The original mitochondria may be ingested cells.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
34. What statement is true?
a. Dinosaurs were cold-blooded (ectotherms).
b. Prokaryotes have a restricted array of metabolic pathways.
c. Viruses are a prokaryote.
d. Bat and bird wings are homologous structures.
e. Earth's free-oxygen atmosphere was created by cyanobacteria.
e. Earth's free-oxygen atmosphere was created by cyanobacteria.
35. The most diverse groups of insects and vertebrates in terms of number of living species are:
a. butterflies and mammals.
b. flies and birds.
c. beetles and cartilaginous fishes.
d. beetles and bony fishes.
e. grasshoppers and reptiles.
d. beetles and bony fishes.