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212 Cards in this Set

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What causes Johne's disease in cattle?
M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
How is johnes disease diagnosed?
microscpoy on retal scraping, fecal smear and culture, immunological tests, johnin skin test
What agar is commonly used for fungi and what is its pH?

temperature are they grown at?
Sabouraud dextrose agar, pH 5.5 @ 25^C

fungi tend to tolerate low pH well
What types of fungi are generally:
1. filamentous ?
2. branching ?
3. unicellular?
1. Filamentous - molds
2. branching - molds
3. unicellular = yeast*

* yeast tend to be oval or spherical
What is an example of a filamentous fungi (moulds)?
aspergillus

NOT dimorphic because never in yeast form
What is an example of the unicellular fungi (yeast)
malassezia
What is mycelium?

temp. does it prefer?
mass of hyphae

~one of dimorphic forms (other being unicellular yeast); grows at 20-25^C
What anti-fungal is used for a variety of systemic mycotic infections?
Ketoconazole ("nizoral")
What is dimorphic?
having yeast form (37 degrees) and mycelial form (25 degrees)
What are the categories of fungal disease?
Dermatomycoses
Yeast and yeast-like fungi
Subcutaneous mycoses
Systemic mycoses
What narrow spectrum drug is used for yeast infections, including Candida?
Nystatin
What is the name for asexual spores?
Conidia
Name 4 dimorphic fungi
1. Blastomycosis
2. Coccidoidomycosis
3. Histoplasmosis
4. Sporothrix schenckil
What anti-fungal is given orally for ringworm infections?
Given orally for ringworm infections -> GRISEFULVIN
What are spores from hyphal fragmentation (ring worm fungi)
arthroconidia / arthrospores
Which of these cause systemic mycosis?

1. Blastomycosis
2. Coccidoidomycosis
3. Histoplasmosis
4. Sporothrix schenckil

Any others?
1. Blastomycosis
2. Coccidoidomycosis
3. Histoplasmosis

Zygomycosis, Aspergillosis
What causes ringworm, displays lesions on skin, hair and nails, as well as alopecia, erythema and crusts?
Dermatophytes
Which of these cause subcutaneous mycosis?
1. Blastomycosis
2. Coccidoidomycosis
3. Histoplasmosis
4. Sporothrix schenckil
4. Sporothrix schenckil

* dimorphic but does NOT cause systemic mycosis, only hangs around in subcutaneous region
What is is called when the natural habitat is soil?
geophilic
What are four species of Staphylococcus (and their primary hosts)?
S. aureus (zoonotic - everyone)
S. intermedius (cats&dogs)
S. epidermidis (humans & ?)
S. hyicus (neonatal pigs)
What is it called when animals are the source?
zoophilic
How can Staph be diagnosed?
Smear (grape clusters)
Culture for Ab sensitivity
Catalase
Coagulase
What is dermatomycoses?
ring worm fungi
Immunity, prevention and treatment of Staph?
Bacterins - limited use - (suspension of killed or weakened bacteria used as a vaccine).
Hygiene
Drugs - CLOXACILLIN, amoxicillin-clavulanic, cephalosporins
What are examples of yeast and yeast-like fungi?
yeast: candida, malassezia
What is an example of subcutaneous mycoses?
sporotrichosis
Aspergillosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidoidomycosis, and zygomycosis are examples of what?
systemic mycoses
What are general features of mycotic infections?
Chronic or acute?
Morbidity high or low?
Antibodies present?
Host susceptibility?
low morbidity and contagiousness, chronic nature, antibodies rarely present, lowered host resistance, prolonged antibacterial therapy
What are mycology laboratory procedures
wet mount with 10% KOH, scotch tape mounts in lactophenol cotton blue of fungal hyphae in culture, histological sections, latex agglutination, ELISA for fungal antigens in clinical specimens.
What are examples of antifungal therapy drugs?
(name 4 major ones and their primary targets)
Amphotericin B (toxic),
Ketoconazole,
Nystatin (for candida infections)
Griseofulvin (orally for ring worm infection)

Itraconazole (for Cryptoc.neoformans, systemic mycosis)
What is caused by ringworm, is zoonotic, lesions restricted to skin, hair, and nails?
Dermatophytes
How is dermatophytes diagnosed?
wood's lamp (diagnostic tool which uses UV light to detect ?
wet mount
culture on sabouraud
What are signs of dermatomycosis or "ringworm" (3)

Hint: A E C
alopecia (loss of hair), erythema (redness of skin), and crusts
Resitance to re-infection of dermatomycosis is associated with what?
development of DTH
For ring worm positive cultures note a white powdery growth of possible M. canis on "fungassay" medium. Color of medium changes from what to what in positive cases?
yellow to red
M. canis is mainly in what spp.?
Shape of cells?
Morphology?
Stain?
zoophilic dermatophyte, in cats and dogs, spindle-shaped, macroconidia
M. gypseum is found where? morphology?
geophilic, in rodents, dogs, and horses, cigar shaped, macroconidium and numerous microconidia
M. nanum is what? host species?
M. nanum is geophilic (in soil), in PIGS
T. verrucosum is found in what spp.?
zoophilic, in cattle
T. equinum is found in what spp.?
zoophilic, in horses
Trichophyton mentagrophytes is found in what spp.?

Morphology?
zoophilic, in dogs, horses, and cats

macroconidium - large conida
microconidia - small conida
Griseofluvin can be administered orally to what animals?
dogs, cats, and even cattle
What are anti-dermatophyte drugs?
Griseofluvin and ketoconazole
What is a disease mostly caused by A. fumigatus, causes brooder pneumonia in chicks, mycotic abortion in cattle, gutteral pouch mycosis and keratomycosis in horses?
Aspergillosis <- A. fumigatus

also causes Nasal Aspergillosis in dogs!
What is destruction of turbinate bones, profuse blood tinged exudate from nose?
Nasal Aspergillosis in dogs
Aspergillus produces what?
elastases and proteases, which destroy structural barriers of lung
How is aspergillosis diagnosed?
KOH wet mounts of deep scrapings, tissue - septate hyphae, radiograph rhinoscopy, culture on SAB medium, serological test (AGID) for dogs.
How is aspergillosis controlled and treated?
litter change, avoid bad hay, silage
Ketoconazole locally + itraconazole systemic for horses
Natamycin or miconazole topical for kertitis in horses
for Nasal aspergillous use Clotrimazole
What is the preferred treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs?
clotrimazole nasal infusion
Where is yeast normally found?
commonly found on skin, mucous membranes
Candida, Cryptococcus, and Malassezia are examples of what?
important yeast
What yeast is commensal of alimentary tract, and its infections are endogenous?
Candida albicans

* with take over if normal bacterial flora are decimated
What is genital candidiasis in dogs and cats?
Mycotic stomatitis
What mycosis can occur in poultry?
crop mycosis or thrush
What causes vaginitis in horses?
metritis
What is the pathogenesis of the candida species?
Candida adheres to mm, pseudohyphae invade epithelium which leads to pseudomembranous ulcerative inflammation
How do you diagnose the candida species?
KoH wet mount or gram stain, culture, latex agglutination kits detect antigen in body fluids
How do you treat the Candida species?
Nystatin topical, ketoconazole, nystatin oral for GI overgrowth
What is the habitat of the Cryptococcus neoformans?
soil, pigeon droppings
What are symptoms of Cryptococcus neoformans?
sneezing, snuffling, mucopurulent / hemorrhagic nasal discharge
(most disgusting images ever)
How is Cryptococcus treated?
ITRACONAZOLE (1st choice in cats), fluconazole (2nd choice)

treatment for 6-10 months!
Cryptococcus neoformans remains in YEAST form in what environments?
both environment (25 degrees C) and host (37 degrees C)
Cryptococcus produces enzymes including what?
phospholipases which disrupt host cell membranes and cause granulomas
What causes chronic dermatitis (elephant like skin), otitis extern, and is bottle or peanut or footprint shaped yeast?
Malassezia pachydermatitis
How do you treat a Malassezia infection?
nystatin
what is the main animal affected by dimorphic fungi blastomycosis?
dog
What is soil borne, aerosol inhalation, causes granulomatous lesions in lungs, and respiratory distress?
Dimorphic fungi blastomycosis
Spores from mycelia can cause infections via what?
respiratory tract
What fungus has no capsule?
canine pulmonary blastomycosis
how do you diagnose blastomycosis?
wet mount of transtracheal aspirate or skin lesion exudate, culture at 25 degrees C will show mycelia form
How do you treat blastomycosis?
Itraconazole, (60 days of treatment)
What is the source of dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum?
soil enriched with bat or bird excretion in the USA
How is the infection os Histoplasma capsulatum obtained?
via inhalation, granulomatous lesions / nodules in lungs, intestine may be affected
What are symptoms of Histoplasma capsulatum?
chronic cough, diarrhea, emaciation
How is Histoplasma capsulatum diagnosed?
histopathy, buffy coat smear, serology
How do you treat Histoplasma capsulatum?
itraconazole or fluconazole
What is a soil or dust-borne dimorphic fungus that is popular in the southern USA and south america and mostly affects dogs?
Coccidioidomycosis or "valley fever"
How do you get infected with "valley fever"?
Coccidoidomycosis: “Valley Fever” (human disease)

-> get by inhaling infective arthrospores
Does coccidioidomycosis have horizontal transmission (dog -> man)?
No
What are signs in dogs of Coccidioidomycosis?
Signs of coccidoidomycosis in dogs:
- DYSPNEA (heavy breathing), weight loss, lymphadenopathy, seizures
How is coccidioidomycosis diagnosed?
Serology
DTH to coccidioidin
Skin test
Histopath (shows mature "spherule" with endospores)
How is coccidiodomycosis treated and controlled?
ketoconazole or itraconazole for up to 12 months, reduce exposure to dust in endemic areas
What is a soil borne dimorphic fungus that affects horses, mules, and rarely dogs and cats, that causes infection via skin wounds
Sporotrichosis
Can sporotrichosis have cat to human transmission?
yes
How do you treat sporotrichosis?
potassium iodide and sodium iodide for horses, itraconazole for cats
Rhizopus, Mucor, Absidia, and Mortierella are examples of what?
Zygomycosis
How is zyogomycosis treated and what is the prognosis?
Amphotericin B, prognosis is poor
What is produced by mycotoxins formed by mold growing in feed, is non-contagious and is indicated by decreased feed consumption or feed refusal?
mycotoxicoses
What is a form of mycotoxicoses, that mainly affects cattle and poultry, causes bloodly diarrhea, death, icterus (jaundice), and abortion?
Aflatoxicosis - causes bloody diarrhea!! make sure to check feed!
What is a form of mycotoxicoses, that affects pigs, poultry and horses, causes weight loss, kidney and liver damage, and abortion?
Ochratoxicosis
What is caused by Claviceps purpurea growth in seedheads, affects cattle, sheep, horseas, pigs, and poultry, causes neurotoxicity, convulsions and gangrene of extremities?
Ergotism
What causes spoidesmin, liver damage, buildup of phylioerithrin, photodynamic activity, necrosis and sloughing of skin?
Facial Eczema or Pithomyces chartarum
How is facial eczema diagnosed and controlled?
jaundice, history, sporidesmin, detection in blood by ELISA, controlled by fungicide spray, zinc salts in feed
What has > 30 species, mostly commensals of skin, mucous membrane, cause purulent lesions, multiply readily in milk and cheese and survives in hospital environment?
staphylococcus
What are staphylococcus tissue destroying enzymes/toxins?
lipase, hyaluronidase, exofoliative toxins, leukocidin
What do Beta Lactamases do?
destroy penicillins, cephalosporins
What are the disease conditions of staphylococcus in all animal species?
wound infections, abscesses, joint infections
What can staph cause in cattle, sheep, and goat? (Name 2)

Hint: 1 is only in lambs
mastitis, tick pyemia-lambs
What can staph cause in swine?
exudative dermatitis/grease pig disease, mastitis
What can staph cause in dogs?
otitis externa, UTI, skin and vaginal infections
What can staph cause in cats?
secondary skin infections
What cans staph cause in horses?
botryomycosis (spermatic cord)
What can staph cause in poultry?
"bumble foot", arthritis
What can staph cause in pet birds?
diarrhea
What Staph strain is positive for double zone hemolysis, mostly virulent strains, causes infections in all species, but important in bovine mastitis?
S. aureus
What staph strain is positive for double zone hemolysis, associated with dogs pyoderma, otitis, UTI, eye infections?
S. intermedius
What staph strain is non-hemolytic, skin commensal, mostly non-pathogenic, occasional infections with cats?
S. epidermidis
What strain is non-hemolytic associated with pigs, exudative epidermitis ("greasy pig dz")
S. hyicus
How do you diagnose staph infections?
smear
culture for antibiotic sensitivity
catalase
coagulase
ID
What are signs of bovine mastitis (S. aureus)
peracute (gangrenous), fever, depression, anorexia, recumbency, rapid heart rate, acute, subacute, chronic, subclinical.
How do you diagnose bovine mastitis?
Culture
Somatic cell count (SCC)
California Mastitis Test (CMT)
How should bovine mastitis be treated?

How do you prevent bovine mastitis?
* Antimicro.suscept. testing required.
* Intra-mammary infusion (IM or IV for acute)

* Prevention:
hygienic precautions
dry-cow therapy
culling
SCC monitoring program - somatic cell count
Is Staph intermedius normal on canine skin?
yes
What is required for effective treatment of S. intermedius?
antibiotic sensitivity testing
What is a commensal of skin, vagina, prepuce, and is a disease in pigs 1-6 weeks of age?
Greasy pig disease (staph hyicus)
What are signs of staph hyicus?
excessive sebacious secretion, exofoliation, greasy excudation on skin surface, non-pruritic dermatitis, anorexia, dehydration, death
How do you treat staph hyicus?
TMS systemic and topical antiseptics, fluid replacement, autogenous bacterins
What is gram + cocci in pairs or chains, is catalase -ve, and has variable types of hemolysis?
streptococcus
Can a strep infection be endogenous, exogenous, or both?
both
Which hemolytic strain of strep is more pathogenic, alpha or beta?
Beta
What strep stains hosts are dogs and horses, commensal of anal and vaginal mucosa, causes suppurative conditions, "puppy strangles", juvenile pyoderma, TSS, and neonatal septicemia in kittens?
Strep canis
What causes equine strangles, is an obligate pathogen, mucoid beta hemolytic colonies on BA, causes purulent pharyngitis, lymphadenitis, and occasionally inhalation pneumonia?
Strep equi
What can be transmitted from horse to horse via fomites, can rupture sub-mandibular lymph nodes and discharge highly infectious material, and shedding can take up to 6 weeks?
equine strangles
What are symptoms of equine strangles?
fever, nasal discharge, mild cough, swallowing difficulty, swollen lymph nodes of head, neck, rarely "bastard strangles", adscesses in many organs
How do you treat equine strangles?
penicillin to infected and in-contact horses, isolation, quarantine of new horses, vxns
How are S. equi (equine strangles) and subspecies Zooepidermicus differentiated?

How can equine strangles be differentiated from equine pnemonia?
sugar fermentation reactions
What strep strain is in tonsils, nasal secretion, feces, repro tract of carriers, has many cap types, and is type 2 virulent?
Strep. suis
What can cause bovine mastitis, is mostly beta hemolytic, CAMP +, and is exclusively associated with mammary gland.
strep agalactiae
What are three strep strains that cause bovine mastitis?
S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis
What is the multipoint mastitis control program?
1. maintain a dry clean environment
2. establish regular sanitizing maintenance for milking equipment
3. individual wasd/dry towels
4. dry-cow therapy
5. somatic cell count monitoring, culling
What is known as "stangles in hogs" cause abscesses in mandibular, pharyngeal, other lymph nodes, and is controlled by tetracyclines in feed at weaning time?
Steptococcal lymphadenitis (S. porcinus)
C. diptheriae causes what?
human diptheria
What causes pyelonephritis (kidney and ascending UT infection) in cattle, transmission is either venereal or via urine splash, adhere with pili, ascending infection affects bladder, ureters, kidneys?
Corynebacteruim renale group, C. renale, C. pilosum, C. cystitidis
What can C. renale also cause that is controlled by reducing protein in diet?
Posthitis (inflammation of prepure) / ulcerative balanoposthitis in sheep and goats

-- "posthe" means foreskin in geek, i mean Greek!
What is the agent of caseous (=cheese-like) lymphadenitis* in sheep and goats, also cause thin ewe syndrome, and rarely ulcerative lymphagitis in horses?
C. pseudotuberculosis

* Lymphadenitis is an infection of the lymph nodes
How is C. pseudotuberculosis diagnosed and controlled?
diagnosed by smear
culture
ELISA
controlled by improving management (shearing
culling clean dip)
What is a gram + coccoid or short/ pleomorphic rods, on BA is pale pink colonies, and lives in intestine of horses, soil, stable contaminated with horse manure?
Rhodococcus equi

Gr(+) coccobacillus bacterium; found in dry, dusty soil, infects domesticated animals (horses and goats).
Rhodococcus equi causes what in foals ~6 wks (rarely in pigs, humans and other species)
Suppurative bronchopneumonia of foals
What is the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi?
organism inhaled via contaminated dust, destruction of macrophages, destruction of lung parenchyma, suppurative* bronchopneumonia, abscesses in lung, lymph nodes
*suppurative = pus formation
What should you treat clinical cases of Rhodococcus equi with > 4 weeks?
erythromycin and rifampin
Rifampin mainly used for:
Rifampin used for:
Mycobacterium (aerobic gr+ bacteria), Rhodococcus equi
Erythromycin is what type of antibacterial agent?
Erythromycin is a MACROLIDE antibiotic; usually treats: G+ves mainly (strep, staph), and Campylobacter, Leptospira
What is a G+ pleomorphic rod mostly restricted to cattle, sheep, pigs, is an opportunistic pathogen and its habitat is mucous membranes and skin?
Actinomycetes/ Arcanobacterium pyogenes
pyometritis


purulent
inflammation of uterus
(pyo = Gk. for "pus")

purulent = from Latin word for pus formation (suppurative)
What are symptoms of Arcanobacterium pyogenes?
abscesses, pneumonic infections, mastitis, pyometritis, arthritis, liver abscesses, foot rot lesions in sheep, lung lesions
What requires an anaerobic atmosphere + CO2, is a commensal of oral cavity of cattle, causes trauma of the oral mucosa, localized osteomyelitits, pyogranuloma with fistulous tracts and swelling?
Actinomycetes / Actinomyces bovis
What causes granulomatous abscesses (accumulate of granulocytes) of skin/ subcutis in dogs, cats?
Actinomycetes viscosus
What causes localized abscesses or rarely pleuritis, peritonitis, arthritis, associated with grass awns in dogs?
Actinomycetes hordeovulneris
What is anaerobic, causes cystitis and pyleonephritis in pigs, anorexia, arching of back, hematuria, healthy boars are carriers, and penicillin is the drug of choice?
Actinobaculum suis
What is a g+ branching saprophyte, grows on BA as yellowis adherent colonies?
Nocardia
Can nocardia cause bovine mastitis by affected cow entry via contaminated infusion equipment?
yes
What is a cutaneous form of nocardia that causes indolent ulcer or granulomatous swelling with discharging fistulous tracts?
Canine nocardiosis
What is a g+, branching, causes skin infection of cattle, horses, sheep, and goats, causes "rain scald", "rain rot", "lumpy wool dz", "strawberry foot-rot"?
Dermatophilus congolensis
What can predispose animals to dermatophilus congolensis?
skin trauma, tick infestation,
What causes 'swine ___/diamond skin disease', septicemia in turkeys, arthritis in sheep, ___ in humans, _. tonsillarum endocarditis reported in dogs?
**Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae**

swine erysipeloid, E. tonsillarum endocarditis reported in dogs
erysipelas = means "red skin"

~human version not caused by same bacterium
What is caused by fish meal contaminated feed or water, skin wounds and insect bites, has a septicemic form that causes red/purple skin patches, and a cardiac form that causes valvular endocarditis, dynsea and sudden death
Swine erysiapelas
What causes listerosis, a non-contagious disease in sheep, cattle, goats; also in other animal species including humans, and is small g+ coccobacilli/rods, grows at 5-45 C, tumbling motility at 25-30 C?
Listeria monocytogenes
What is the habitat of listeria monocytogenes?
saphrophyte*, found in poor quality SILAGE, decomposing vegetation, sewage, wild rodent feces

*saprophyte is organism that derives nourishment from dead and decaying matter
The neural form of listeria monocytogenes causes what?
'circling disease' complete paralysis, death in 2-3 days in sheep
In what species does listeria monocytogenes cause abortion?
sheep and cattle
The septicemic form of listeria monocytogenes causes what?
multifocal necrosis of liver and spleen in chinchillas, poultry, and young ruminants
How do you control and treat listeriosis?
eliminate bad silage, keep animals off pasture identified for silage, prevent abrasions in eyes from silage, penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, no vxn
What is mostly non-pathogenic, found in environment, G+, large spore forming rods which may be arranged as chains or threads, and the colonies have a ground glass surface and irregular appearance?
Bacillus
What is a hemolytic large flat colony with irregular edges?
Bacillus cereus
What causes septicemia, death, especially in cattle, causes exudation of tarry blood from rectum?
Bacillus anthracis
What animals are not susceptible to Bacillus anthracis?

What animal is most susceptible to bacillus anthracis?
birds

1st: ruminant
2nd: horse/human
In Bacillus anthracis, what factors are required for full activity?
edema factor, protective antigen, lethal factor
In the wild, what animals can spread bacillus anthracis?
flies and carnivorous animals
How do you appropriately deal with an anthrax infested carcass?
incinerate, bury deep in calcium oxide
What must be done for disinfection of bacillus anthracis?
10% formalin for 10 min
What has terminal drumstick shaped spores, lives in the soil, and causes tetanus?
Clostridium tetani
How do you treat/prevent clostridium tetani?
vaccination with tetanus toxoid, treat with antitoxin and penicillin, protect affected animal from light and noise
What causes botulism, is the most potent biological poison, can get it from infected feed, abattoir offal, dead fish, maggots, honey with spores (infant botulism)?
Clostridium botulinum
What are clinical signs of botulism?
straddled posture, profuse salivation, paralysed tongue
What are important histotoxic clostridia?
C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C.novyi/ C. haemolyticum, C. perfringens
What causes black leg in ruminants, especially young thriving cattle, lesions usually in hind leg muscle mass?
Clostridium chauvoei
What drugs can be used to treat mastitis (staph)?
Cloxacillin intramammary
Methicillin
Vancomycin (last resort!)
What is the pathogenesis of Clostridium chauvoei?
- spores in damaged muscle germinate
- multiply, necrotizing myositis, emphysematous gangrene, dark crepitant muscles,
- systemic toxemia
- death
What are symptoms of black leg or C. chauvoei?
fever, lameness, crepitus muscle, mostly fatal
What clostridium strain is not common in the US, and is 'braxy' in seep (UK) and causes acute abomasitis after eatting frozen grass?
Clostridium septicum
What causes 'big head' in rams, and 'black head' disease in sheep
Clostridium septicum
What causes necrotic enteritis in piglets, classical enterotoxemia in sheep, and diarrhea/hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, "yellow lamb disease"?
Clostridium perfingens
What causes Tyzzer's disease (diarrhea/enteritis, liver lesions) in small furies, dogs and calves, and is treated with oxytetracycline?
Clostridium piliforme
What causes diarrhea, enterotoxemia in rabbits and lab rodents, is diagnosed by G+ bacteria in feces and is treated by metronidazole and penicillin?
Clostridium spiroforme
What cause elcerative colitis in birds and is treated with tetracyclines
Clostridium colinum
What have g+ rods but classic species don't stain with gram stain, stain with acid fast + stain, are strictly aerobic; egg based media needed?
mycobacterium
What causes Tb in cattle, humans, and monkeys?
M. bovis
What causes Tb in humans, parrots, monkeys, and elephants?
M. tuberculosis
What causes Tb in birds including poultry and pigs?
Mycobacterium avium
What causes human leprosy, affects skin and peripheral nerves, zoonotic (has been found in armadillos), but domestic animals not affected?

Have cases of animal to human transmission ever occurred?
mycobacterium leprae

Yes, armadillo to human
What causes FELINE leprosy, not a zoonotic bacterium (not in humans), causes cutaneous nodules?

How is it treated?
Mycobacterium lepraemurium

*treated by surgical removal of nodules, and anti-tubercular drug used with antibiotic?
What can cause skin nodules in catlle, lesions in turtles, etc?
Atypical mycobacteria
What causes pseudomembranous colitis in humans, diarrhea and necrotic enterocolitis in foals, chronic diarrhea in dogs, and mesocolonic edema in piglets?
Clostridium difficule
What can be used in horses and in dogs to treat Clostridium difficule?
Dogs: Tylosin
Horses: Metronidazole
What stain and culturing conditions does mycobacterium require?
Acid fast.
Strictly anaerobic, needs egg-based media.
What pathogen infects macrophages, causes tubercles and calcification of lymph nodes, and has a 'Wax D' virulence factors?
M. Tuberculosis
How can leprosy be diagnosed?
Lepromin test (for DH)
ELISA
What drug can be used to treat leprosy?
Dapsone (a sulfonamide-like compound)
What zoonotic bacterium causes leprosy in cats, which they contract from rats?
Mycobacterium lepraemurium
How can Equine Strangles (streptococcus equi) be diagnosed?
Culture discharges - mucoid beta hemolytic
Gr. C?
Sugar fermentation tests
What is used to treat/control equine strangles?
Penicillin
What are some example of virulence factors of streptococci?
Hemolysin
Streptokinase (indirectly digests fibrin clots)
Hyaluronidase (digests CT)
Can Streptococcus cause septicemia?
Yes
What can occur in dogs and cats, causes toxic shock syndrome, "puppy strangles", and neonatal septicemia in kittens?
Streptococcus canis
What vaccines are available for equine strangles?
Bacterin, M protein extract, modified live intranasal vaccine
What can Strept suis be treated with?
Penicillin
Ampicillin
Tiamulin
M. bovis lives naturally in the ____ of cattle throughout the world.

Cause of symptoms in ____ and ____
*in RESPIRATORY tract of cattle

* usually coloniz. produce no disease, but can cause of symptoms of respiratory disease in calves and feedlot cattle.
How can A. bovis be diagnosed?
Smear: Gram + branching filaments
Crushed granules positive for clubs/rosettes
How can A. bovis be treated, early and late?
Early: Penicillin
Late: Surgery and iodine dressing, sodium iodide IV
What are other species of Actinomycetes?
A. viscosus
A. hordeovulneris
Actinobaculum suis
Unclassifiied
How is Canine nocardiosis treated?
Trimethoprim-sulfa (TMS) or tetracyclines.
Penicillin is not effective.
how is bacillus anthracis unique from other bacillis?
only which is CAPSULATED